IVHHN Library

Below is a library of all known articles related to volcanic hazards and their health impact.

A PDF version is also available to download:IVHHN Library PDF

 

Reviews & general articles

Review articles

Baxter, P. J. (1983) ‘Health-Hazards of Volcanic-Eruptions’, Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London, 17, 180-182.

Baxter, P.J. (1990) ‘Medical effects of volcanic eruptions’, Bulletin of Volcanology, 52, 532-544.

Baxter, P.J. (1997) ‘Volcanoes’, in Noji, E.K. (ed) The public health consequences of disasters. Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Baxter, P. J., Bernstein, R. S., & Buist, A. S. (1986) ‘Preventive health measures in volcanic eruptions’, American Journal of Public Health, 76(Suppl), 84-90.

Baxter, P. J., Tedesco, D., Miele, G., Baubron, J. C. & Cliff, K. (1990) ‘Health hazards of volcanic gases’, Lancet, 336, 176.

Bernstein, R. S., Baxter, P. J., & Buist, A. S. (1986) ‘Chapter 1: Introduction to the Epidemiological Aspects of Explosive Volcanism’, American Journal of Public Health, 76(Suppl), 3-9.

Buist, A. S. (1982) ‘Are volcanoes hazardous to your health? What have we learned from Mount St Helens?’, Western Journal of Medicine, 137(4), 294.

Buist, A. S., Bernstein, R. S., Johnson, L. R. & Vollmer, W. M. (1986) ‘Evaluation of physical health effects due to volcanic hazards: human studies’, Am J Public Health, 76, 66-75.

Cook, A., & Weinstein, P. (2011) ‘Volcanic and Geothermal Processes: Health effects’, Encyclopedia of Environmental Health, 664-671.

Cook, A. G., Weinstein, P., & Centeno, J. A. (2005) ‘Health effects of natural dust’, Biological Trace Element Research, 103(1), 1-15.

Durand, M. & Grattan, J. (2001) ‘Effects of volcanic air pollution on health’, Lancet, 357, 164-164.

Ernst, W.G. (2012) ‘Overview of naturally occurring Earth materials and human health concerns’, Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 59, 108-126.

Fubini, B., & Fenoglio, I. (2007) ‘Toxic potential of mineral dusts’, Elements, 3(6), 407-414.

Gregory, N.G. & Neall, V.E. (1996) ‘Toxicity hazards arising from volcanic activity’, Surveillance, 23(2), 14-16.

Grob, E., Oyarzún, M., Cavieres, I., Zarges, P., & Bustamante, G. (2012) ‘Are volcanic ashes a risk for the respiratory health?: A review apropos of volcanic eruption of Cordon Caulle, Chile in June 2011’, Revista chilena de enfermedades respiratorias, 28(4), 294-302.

Hansell, A.L., Horwell, C.J. and Oppenheimer, C. (2006) ‘The health hazards of volcanoes and geothermal areas’, Occupational Environmental Medicine, 63: 149-156.

Hansell, A. & Oppenheimer, C. (2004) ‘Health hazards from volcanic gases: a systematic literature review’, Archives of Environmental Health, 59(12): 628-639.

Horwell, C.J. & Baxter, P.J. (2006) ‘The respiratory health hazards of volcanic ash: a review for volcanic risk mitigation’, Bulletin of Volcanology, 69: 1-24.

Newhall, C. G., & Fruchter, J. S. (1986) ‘Volcanic activity: a review for health professionals’, American Journal of Public Health, 76(Suppl), 10-24.

Stewart, C., Johnston, D.M., Leonard, G.S., Horwell, C,J., Thordarson, T., & Cronin, S.J. (2006) ‘Contamination of water supplies by volcanic ashfall: A literature review and simple impact modelling’, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 158: 296-306.

Weinstein, P., Horwell, C. J. & Cook, A. (2013) ‘Volcanic emissions and health’, Essentials of Medical Geology, Springer Netherlands, 217-238.

Weinstein, P. & Patel, A. (1997) ‘The Mount Ruapehu eruption, 1996: a review of potential health effects’, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 21, 773-778.

Witham, C.S., Oppenheimer, C. and Horwell, C.J. (2005) ‘Volcanic ash leachates: a review and recommendations for sampling methods’, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 141: 299- 326.

Witham, C.S. (2005) ‘Volcanic disasters and incidents: A new database’, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 148(3-4): 191-233.

Zeballos, J. L., Meli, R., Vilchis, A. & Barrios, L. (1996) ‘The effects of volcanoes on health: preparedness in Mexico’, World Health Stat Q, 49, 204-8.

Zuskin, E., Mustajbegovic, J., Doko Jelinic, J., Pucarin-Cvetkoviz, J. & Milosevic, M. (2007) ‘Effects of volcanic eruptions on environment and health’, Arh Hig Rada Toksikol, 58, 479-86.

General/uncategorised articles

Baxter, P. J., Ing, R., Falk, H., French, J., Stein, G. F., Bernstein, R. S., Merchant, J. A. & Allard, J. (1981) ‘Mount St Helens eruptions, May 18 to June 12, 1980. An overview of the acute health impact’, JAMA, 246, 2585-9.

Heggie, T. W. (2009) ‘Geotourism and volcanoes: health hazards facing tourists at volcanic and geothermal destinations’, Travel Med Infect Dis, 7, 257-61.

Jones, N. E. & Baker, M. D. (2012) ‘Toxicologic Exposures Associated With Natural Disasters: Gases, Kerosene, Ash, and Bites’, Clinical Pediatric Emergency Medicine, 13(4), 317-323.

Kristbjornsdottir, A. & Rafnsson, V. (2012) ‘Incidence of cancer among residents of high temperature geothermal areas in Iceland: a census based study 1981 to 2010’, Environmental Health, 11(1), 73.

Le Guern, F., Bernard, A. & Chevrier, R. M. (1980) ‘Soufriere of Guadeloupe 1976–1977 eruption—Mass and energy transfer and volcanic health hazards’, Bulletin Volcanologique, 43(3), 577-593.

Ledda, C., Rapisarda, V., Bracci, M., Proietti, L., Zuccarello, M., Fallico, R., Fiore, M. & Ferrante, M. (2013) ‘Professional exposure to basaltic rock dust: assessment by the Vibrio fischeri ecotoxicological test’, Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, 8, 23.

Nania, J. M., Rodriguez Garcia, M., Fruchter, J. S., Olsen, K. B. & Hooper, P. R. (1994) ‘In the shadow of El Chichon: an overview of the medical impact of the 28 March to 4 April 1982 eruptions of the Mexican volcano’, Prehosp Disaster Med, 9, 58-66.

Phillips, N. R., Stewart, M., Olsen, G. & Hickey, C. W. (2014) ‘Human Health Risks of Geothermally Derived Metals and Other Contaminants in Wild-Caught Food’, Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A, 77(6), 346-365.

Rodrigues, A., Arruda, M., & Garcia, P. (2012) ‘Evidence of DNA damage in humans inhabiting a volcanically active environment: A useful tool for biomonitoring’, Environmental International, 49, 51-56.

Selinus, O. & Weinstein, P. (2010) ‘Eyjafjallajokull 2010: Health effects of the volcanic eruption’, Geologiskt Forum, 67(17), 18-19.

Trevisanato, S. I. (2007) ‘Medical papyri describe the effects of the Santorini eruption on human health, and date the eruption to August 1603–March 1601 BC’, Medical Hypotheses, 68(2), 446-449.

Varrica, D., Tamburo, E., Dongarrà, G., & Sposito, F. (2014) ‘Trace elements in scalp hair of children chronically exposed to volcanic activity (Mt. Etna, Italy)’, Science of the Total Environment, 470-471, 117-126.

Not peer reviewed

Wilson, T., Stewart, C., Bickerton, H., Baxter, P., Outes, V., Villarosa, G., & Rovere, E. (2013) ‘Impacts of the June 2011 Puyehue-Cordón Caulle Volcanic Complex Eruption on Urban Infrastructure, Agriculture and Public Health’, GNS Science Report 2012/20, 88p.

Thyroid cancer

Arnbjörnsson, E., Arnbjörnsson, A., & Ólafsson, A. (1986) ‘Thyroid cancer incidence in relation to volcanic activity’, Archives of Environmental Health: An International Journal, 41(1), 36-40.

Biondi, B., Arpaia, D., Montuori, P., Ciancia, G., Ippolito, S., Pettinato, G., & Triassi, M. (2012) ‘Under the shadow of Vesuvius: a risk for thyroid cancer?’, Thyroid, 22(12), 1296-1297.

Dal Maso, L., Franceschi, S., Lise, M., Fusco, M., Tumino, R., & Serraino, D. (2010) ‘Re: papillary thyroid cancer incidence in the volcanic area of Sicily’, Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 102(12), 914- 915.

Duntas, L. H. & Doumas, C. (2009) ‘The 'rings of fire' and thyroid cancer’, Hormones-International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, 8, 249-253.

Kung, T. M., Ng, W. L., & Gibson, J. B. (1981) ‘Volcanoes and carcinoma of the thyroid: a possible association’, Archives of Environmental Health: An International Journal, 36(5), 265-267.

Pellegriti, G., De Vathaire, F., Scollo, C., Attard, M., Giordano, C., Arena, S., Dardanoni, G., Frasca, F., Malandrino, P., Vermiglio, F., Orevitera, D.M., D’Azzò, G., Trimarchi, F., & Vigneri, R. (2009) ‘Papillary thyroid cancer incidence in the volcanic area of Sicily’, Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 101(22), 1575-1583.

Health and aviation

Evans, S. (2012) ‘Volcanic emissions – an aviation health hazard?’, Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 83(3).

King, S., Erlund, E., Clarkson, R., Bird, A., Col, Da S. (2013) ‘Use of equipment health monitoring information for assessing potential exposure to volcanic events’, International Journal of Condition Monitoring, 3(1), 16-22(7).

Health management (including evacuation)

Avery, J. G. (2003) ‘The aftermath of a disaster - Recovery following the volcanic eruptions in Montserrat, West Indies’, West Indian Medical Journal, 52, 131-135.

Baba, H., & Teramoto, S. (1996) ‘A Case Study of Volcano Eruption Health and Emergency Medical Response to Unzen-Fugendake Eruption’, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Government of Japan. Mar. 1996, Tokyo, JP. 109-117.

Baxter, P. J., & Ancia, A. (2002) ‘Human Health and Vulnerability in the Nyiragongo Volcano Crisis Democratic Republic of Congo 2002Final Report to the World Health Organisation.

Baxter, P. J., Bernstein, R. S., & Buist, A. S. (1986) ‘Preventive health measures in volcanic eruptions’, American Journal of Public Health, 76(Suppl), 84-90.

Baxter, P. J., Bernstein, R. S., Falk, H., & French, J. (1982) ‘Medical aspects of volcanic disasters: an outline of the hazards and emergency response measures’, Disasters, 6(4), 268-276.

Bernstein, R. S., Baxter, P. J., Falk, H., Ing, R., Foster, L. and Frost, F. (1986) 'Immediate public health concerns and actions in volcanic eruptions: lessons from the Mount St. Helens eruptions, May 18- October 18, 1980', American Journal of Public Health, 76(supplement), 25-37.

Bernstein, R. S. & Buist, A. S. (1984) ‘Public-Health Aspects of Volcanic Hazards - Evaluation and Prevention of Excessive Morbidity and Mortality Due to Natural Disasters’, Disasters, 8, 6-8.

Brand, H., & Krafft, T. (2010) ‘The Icelandic ash cloud and other erupting health threats: what role for syndromic surveillance?’, The European Journal of Public Health, 20(4), 367-368.

Buist, A. S. and Berstein, R. S. (1986) 'Health effects of volcanoes: an approach to evaluating the health effects of an environmental hazard', American Journal of Public Health, 76(supplement), 1-2.

Buist, A. S., Martin, T. R., Shore, J. H., Butler, J., & Lybarger, J. A. (1986) ‘The development of a multidisciplinary plan for evaluation of the long-term health effects of the Mount St. Helens eruptions’, American Journal of Public Health, 76(Suppl. 39), 39-44.

Cooper, R. & Tuitt, J. (1998) ‘Montserrat - Managing health care in a volcanic crisis’, West Indian Medical Journal, 47, 20-21.

Gueri, M., Allen, B., & Iton, M. (1982) ‘Nutritional status of vulnerable groups in evacuation centres during the eruption of La Soufriere Volcano in St. Vincent, 1979’, Disasters, 6(1), 10-15.

Lane, L. R., Tobin, G. A., & Whiteford, L. M. (2003) ‘Volcanic hazard or economic destitution: hard choices in Baños, Ecuador’, Global Environmental Change Part B: Environmental Hazards, 5(1), 23-34.

Rosewell, A., Clark, G., Mabong, P., Ropa, B., Posanai, E., Man, N. W., Dutta, S.R., Wickramasinghe, W., Qi, L., Ng, J.C., Mola, G., Zwi, A.B., & MacIntyre, C. R. (2013) ‘Concurrent Outbreaks of Cholera and Peripheral Neuropathy Associated with High Mortality among Persons Internally Displaced by a Volcanic Eruption’, PloS one, 8(9), e72566.

Rossodivita, A. (2011) ‘(A232) Volcanic Eruptions: Health Consequences and Preventive Health Measures—An Overview’, Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, 26(S1), s63.

Surmieda, M. R., Lopez, J. M., Abad-Voila, A, G., Miranda, M. E., Abellanosa, I. P., Sadang, R. A., Magboo, F. P., Zacarias, N. S., Magpantay, R. L., & White, F. M. (1992) ‘Surveillance in evacuation camps after the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo, Philippines’, MMWR CDC Surveill Summ, 41, 9-12.

Tobin, G. A., & Whiteford, L. M. (2002) ‘Community resilience and volcano hazard: the eruption of Tungurahua and evacuation of the Faldas in Ecuador’, Disasters, 26(1), 28-48.

Injuries and fatalities

Auker, M. R., Sparks, R. S. J., Siebert, L., Crosweller, H. S., & Ewert, J. (2013) ‘A statistical analysis of the global historical volcanic fatalities record’, Journal of Applied Volcanology, 2(1), 1-24.

Baxter, P.J., & Gresham, A. (1997) ‘Deaths and injuries in the eruption of Galeras Volcano, Colombia, 14 January 1993’, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 77(1-4), 325-338.

Baxter, P.J., Jenkins, S.F., Seswandhana, R., Komorowski, J.-C., Dunn, K., Purser, D., Voight, B., Shelley, I. (2017) 'Human survival in volcanic eruptions: Thermal injuries in pyroclastic surges, their causes, prognosis and emergency management'. Burns, 19.

Dent, A. W., Davies, G., Barrett, P. & Desaintours, P. J. A. (1995) ‘The 1994 eruption of the Rabaul volcano, Papua New Guinea: Injuries sustained and medical response’, Medical Journal of Australia, 163, 635-639.

Eisele, J.W., O’Halloran, R.L., Reay, D.T., Lindholm, G.R., Lewman, L.V., & Brady, W.J. (1981) ‘Deaths during the May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens’, The New England Journal of Medicine, 305:931– 936

Heggie, T. W., & Heggie, T. M. (2012) ‘The epidemiology of extreme hiking injuries in volcanic environments’, Epidemiology of Injury in Adventure and Extreme Sports, 58, 130-141.

Mastrolorenzo, G., Petrone, P.P., Pagano, M., Incoronato, A., Baxter, P.J., Canzanella, A., & Fattore, L. (2001) ‘Herculaneum victims of Vesuvius in AD 79’, Nature, 410, 769-770.

Shiroko, T. (2016) 'An experience of trauma cases: patoients hit by rocks during the Mt Ontake volcanic eruption in Japan'. Journal of Japanese Association for Acute Medicine, 27(12), 770-775.

Simkin, T., Siebert, L., & Blong, R. (2001) ‘Volcano fatalities – lessons from the historical record’, Science, 291(5502), 255.

Ash impacts

IVHHN leachates protocol

Stewart, C., Horwell C.J., Plumlee, G., Cronin, S., Delmelle, P., Baxter, P., Calkins, J., Damby, D.E., Morman, S. & Oppenheimer, C. (2013) ‘Protocol for analysis of volcanic ash samples for assessment of hazards from leachable elements’. Available at: www.ivhhn.org/

IVHHN ash analysis protocol

Methodology papers for bulk ash analysis

Horwell, C.J. (2007) ‘Grain size analysis of volcanic ash for the rapid assessment of respiratory health hazard’, Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 9(10), 1107 - 1115.

Horwell, C.J., Fenoglio, I. & Fubini, B. (2007) ‘Iron-induced hydroxyl radical generation from basaltic volcanic ash’, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 261(3-4): 662-669.

Le Blond, J.S., Cressey, G., Horwell, C.J. & Williamson, B.J. (2009) ‘A rapid method for quantifying single mineral phases in heterogeneous natural dust using X-ray diffraction’, Powder Diffraction, 24: 17- 23.

Reich, M. (2009) ‘Formation of cristobalite nanofibers during explosive volcanic eruptions’, Geology, 37(5): 435-438.

Witham, C.S., Oppenheimer, C. and Horwell, C.J. (2005) ‘Volcanic ash leachates: a review and recommendations for sampling methods’, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 141: 299- 326.

Recent research papers applying methodologies for bulk ash analysis

Cronin, S.J., Stewart, C., Zernack, A., Brenna, M., Procter, J.N., Pardo, N.m Christenson, B., Wilson, T.M., Stewart, R.B. and Irwin, M. (2014) ‘Volcanic ash leachate compositions and assessment of health and agricultural hazards from 2012 hydrothermal eruptions, Tongariro, New Zealand’, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research (accepted, in press).

Damby, D. E., Horwell, C. J., Baxter, P. J., Delmelle, P., Donaldson, K., Dunster, C., Fubini, B., Murphy, F.A., Nattrass, C., Sweeney, S., Tetley, T.D., & Tomatis, M. (2013) ‘The respiratory health hazard of tephra from the 2010 Centennial eruption of Merapi with implications for occupational mining of deposits’, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 261, 376-387.

Hillman, S.E., Horwell, C.J., Densmore, A., Damby, D.E., Fubini, B., Ishimine, Y. and Tomatis, M. (2012) ‘Sakurajima volcano: a physico-chemical study of the health consequences of long-term exposure to volcanic ash’, Bulletin of Volcanology, 74: 913–930.

Horwell, C. J., Baxter, P. J., Hillman, S. E., Calkins, J. A., Damby, D. E., Delmelle, P., Donaldson, K., Dunster, C., Kelly, F.J., Le Bond, J.S., Livi, K.J., Murphy, F., Nattrass, C., Sweeney, S., Tetley, T.D., Thordarson, T., & Tomatis, M. (2013) ‘Physicochemical and toxicological profiling of ash from the 2010 and 2011 eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull and Grímsvötn volcanoes, Iceland using a rapid respiratory hazard assessment protocol’, Environmental Research, 127, 63-73.

Horwell, C.J., Le Blond, J.S., Michnowicz, S.A.K. and Cressey, G. (2010) ‘Cristobalite in a rhyolitic lava dome: Evolution of ash hazard’, Bulletin of Volcanology, 72: 249–253.

Horwell, C.J., Stannett, G.W., Andronico, D., Bertagnini, A., Fenoglio, I., Fubini, B., Le Blond, J.S., & Williamson, B.J. (2010) ‘A physico-chemical assessment of the health hazard of Mt. Vesuvius volcanic ash’, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 191: 222-232.

Horwell, C.J., Fenoglio, I. and Fubini, B. (2007) ‘Iron-induced hydroxyl radical generation from basaltic volcanic ash’, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 261(3-4): 662-669.

Horwell, C.J., Fenoglio, I., Ragnarsdottir, K.V., Sparks, R.S.J. and Fubini, B. (2003) ‘Surface reactivity of volcanic ash from the eruption of Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat, with implications for health hazards’, Environmental Research, 93(2): 202-215.

Horwell, C.J., Sparks, R.S.J., Brewer, T.S., Llewellin, E.W. and Williamson, B.J. (2003) ‘The characterisation of respirable volcanic ash from the Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat, with implications for health hazard’, Bulletin of Volcanology, 65: 346-362.

Le Blond, J.S., Horwell, C.J., Baxter, P.J., Michowicz, S.A.K., Tomatis, M., Fubini, B., Dilmelle, P., Dunster, C., & Patia, H. (2010) ‘Mineralogical analyses and in vitro screening tests for the rapid evaluation of the health hazard of volcanic ash at Rabaul volcano, Papua New Guinea’, Bulletin of Volcanology, 72: 1077-1092.

Reich, M. (2009) ‘Formation of cristobalite nanofibers during explosive volcanic eruptions’, Geology, 37(5): 435-438.

General/Multi-Volcano Studies

Bonner, J. C., Rice, A. B., Lindroos, P. M., O'Brian, P. O., Dreher, K. L., Rosas, I., Alfaro-Moreno, E. and Osornio-Vargas, A. R. (1998) 'Induction of the lung myofibroblast PDGF receptor system by urban ambient particles in Mexico city', American Journal of Respiratory Cell Molecular Biology, 19, 672-680.

Cervini-Silva, J., Gomez-Vidales, V., Ramirez-Apan, M. T., Palacios, E., Montoya, A., Kaufhold, S., Abidin, Z., & Theng, B. K. (2014) ‘Lipid peroxidation and cytotoxicity induced by respirable volcanic ash’, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 274, 237-246.

Day M.J., Pearson G.R., Lucke V.M., S.J., L. and R.S.J., S. (1996) 'Lesions associated with the pathology of mineral deposition in the lymph node and lung of the dog,' Veterinary Pathology, 33, 29-42.

Damby, D.E., Llewellin, E.W., Horwell, C.J., Williamson, B.J., Najorka, J., Cressey, G., & Carpenter, M.A. (2014) ‘The α-β phase transition in volcanic cristobalite’, J. App. Crystal, 47.

Horwell, C. J. (2007) 'Grain-size analysis of volcanic ash for the rapid assessment of respiratory health hazard', Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 9(10), 1107-1115.

Horwell, C. J., Fenoglio, I. & Fublni, B. (2007) 'Iron-induced hydroxyl radical generation from basaltic volcanic ash', Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 261(3-4), 662-669.

Riede, F. & Bazely, O. (2009) 'Testing the 'Laacher See hypothesis': a health hazard perspective',

Journal of Archaeological Science, 36(3), 675-683.

Rose, W. I., Riley, C. M. & Dartevelle, S. (2003) 'Sizes and shapes of 10-Ma distal fall pyroclasts in the Ogallala Group, Nebraska', Journal of Geology, 111(1), 115-124.

Stewart, C., Johnston, D. M., Leonard, G. S., Horwell, C. J., Thordarson, T. & Cronin, S. J. (2006) 'Contamination of water supplies by volcanic ashfall: A literature review and simple impact modelling', Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 158(3-4), 296-306.

Vallyathan, V., Robinson, V., Reasor, M., Stettler, L. & Bernstein, R. (1984) 'Comparative in vitro cytotoxicity of volcanic ashes from Mount St Helens, El Chichon, and Galunggung', Journal of Toxicological and Environmental Health, 14(5-6), 641-654.

Weill, H. (1981) 'Risk assessment in volcanic ash exposure', Chest, 80(Suppl. 1), 87S-88S.

Weinhold, B. (2013) ‘Volcanic Ash and the Respiratory Immune System – Possible Mechanisms behind Reported Infections’, Environmental Health Perspectives, 121(6), a197.

Wendlandt, R. F., Harrison, W. J. and Vaughan, D. J. (2007) 'Surface coatings on quartz grains in bentonites and their relevance to human health', Applied Geochemistry, 22(11), 2290-2306.

Williamson, B. J., Pastiroff, S. and Cressey, G. (2001) 'Piezoelectric properties of quartz and cristobalite airborne particulates as a cause of adverse health effects', Atmospheric Environment, 35, 3539-3542.

Non-peer reviewed

Baxter, P. J., Woo, G. and Pomonis, A. (1998) Preliminary assessment of volcanic risk on Montserrat: Montserrat: Montserrat Volcano Observatory.

Damby, D. (2012) ‘From Dome to Disease: The Respiratory Toxicity of Volcanic Cristobalite’, Doctoral dissertation, Durham University, UK.

Mascarenhas, S., & Mattoso, L.H. (2010) ‘Volcanic ash should not be presumed harmless in long term’, Nature, 465(7295), 157.

Wakefield, J. (2000) 'An eruption of silicosis', Environmental Health Perspectives, 108(7), A302.

Africa

Cameroon

Atanga, M.B.S., Van der Meerve, A.S., Shemamg, E.M., Suh, C.E., Kruger, W., Njome, M.S., & Asobo, N.E. (2013) ‘Volcanic Ash from the 1999 Eruption of Mount Cameroon Volcano: Characterization and Implications to Health Hazards’, African Journals Online, 8(2-3), 63-70.

Americas

Argentina
General

Ruggieri, F., Saavedra, J., Fernandez-Turiel, J. L., Gimeno, D. and Garcia-Valles, M. (2010) ‘Environmental geochemistry of ancient volcanic ashes’, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 183(1-3), 353- 365.

Copahue Volcano

Gomez, D., Smichowski, P., Polla, G., Ledesma, A., Resnizky, S. and Rosa, S. (2002) 'Fractionation of elements by particle size of ashes ejected from Copahue Volcano, Argentina', Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 4(6), 972-977.

Chile

Daga, R., Guevara, S.R., Poire, D.G., & Arribére. (2014) ‘Characterisation of tephras dispersed by the recent eruptions of volcanoes Calbuco (1061), Chaitén (2008) and Cordón Caulle Complex (1960 and 2011), in Northern Patagonia’, Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 49, 1-14.

Horwell, C. J., Le Blond, J. S., Michnowicz, S. A. K. & Cressey, G. (2010) 'Cristobalite in a rhyolitic lava dome: evolution of ash hazard', Bulletin of Volcanology, 72(2), 249-253.

Reich, M., Zuniga, A., Amigo, A., Vargas, G., Morata, D., Palacios, C., Parada, M. A. & Garreaud, R. D. (2009) 'Formation of cristobalite nanofibers during explosive volcanic eruptions', Geology, 37(5), 435- 438.

Ecuador
Guaga Pichincha Volcano

Naumova, E. N., Yepes, H., Griffiths, J. K., Sempertegui, F., Khurana, G., Jagai, J. S., Jativa, E. and Estrella, B. (2007) 'Emergency room visits for respiratory conditions in children increased after Guagua Pichincha volcanic eruptions in April 2000 in Quito, Ecuador Observational Study: Time series analysis',Environmental Health, 6, 21.

Mount Tungurahua

Tobin, G. A. & Whiteford, L. M. (2001) 'Children’s health characteristics under different evacuation strategies: the eruption of Mount Tungurahua, Ecuador', Applied Geography Conference, 24, 183-191.

Tobin, G. A., & Whiteford, L. M. (2004) ‘Chronic hazards: Health impacts associated with on-going ash- falls around Mt. Tungurahua in Ecuador’, Applied Geography Conferences, 27, 84-93.

Costa Rica

Horton, R. J. M. & McCaldin, R. O. (1964) 'Observations on air pollution aspects of Irazu volcano, Costa Rica', Public Health Reports, 79, 925-929.

Nicaragua

Malilay, J., Real, M. G., Ramirez Vanegas, A., Noji, E. & Sinks, T. (1996) 'Public health surveillance after a volcanic eruption: lessons from Cerro Negro, Nicaragua, 1992', Bull Pan Am Health Organ, 30(3), 218- 26.

Martin, R. S., Mather, T. A., Pyle, D. M., Power, M., Tsanev, V. I., Oppenheimer, C., Allen, A. G., Horwell, C. J. & Ward, E.P.W. (2009) 'Size distributions of fine silicate and other particles in Masaya's volcanic plume', Journal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres, 114, D9.

Mather, T. A., Allen, A. G., Oppenheimer, C., Pyle, D.M., & McGonigle, A.J.S. (2003) 'Size resolved particle compositions of the tropospheric plume of Masaya volcano, Nicaragua', Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, 46(3), 207-237.

Mexico

Rojas-Ramos, M., Catalan-Vazquez, M., Pozzo, A. L. M. D., Garcia-Ojeda, E., Villalba-Caloca, J. & Perez-Neria, J. (2001) 'A seven months prospective study of the respiratory effects of exposure to ash from Popocatepetl volcano, Mexico', Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 23(4), 383-396.

Montserrat
Epidemiological and clinical studies

Cadelis, G., Tourres, R., Molinie, J., & Petit, R.H. (2013) ‘Exacerbations of asthma in Guadeloupe (French West Indies) and volcanic eruption in Montserrat (70km from Guadeloupe)’, Revue des Maladies Respiratoires, 30(3), 203-214.

Cowie, H.A., Graham, M.K., Searl, A., Miller, B.G., Hutchison, P.A., Swales, C., Dempsey, S., & Russell, M. (2002) A health survey of workers on the island of Montserrat. Institute of Occupational Medicine, Edinburgh, IOMTM/02/01.

Cowie, H. A., Hutchison, P. A., Graham, M. K., Cattermole, T. J., Dempsey, S. & Russell, M. (2006) ‘Study of workers on the island of Montserrat: Follow up to survey in 2000’, Edinburgh: Institute of Occupational Medicine.

Cowie, H.A., Searl, A., Ritchie, P.J., Graham, M.K., Hutchison, P.A., & Pilkington, A. (2001) A health survey of Montserratians relocated to the UK. Institute of Occupational Medicine, Edinburgh, IOM TM/01/07.

Forbes, L., Jarvis, D., Potts, J. & Baxter, P. J. (2003) 'Volcanic ash and respiratory symptoms in children on the island of Montserrat, British West Indies', Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 60(3), 207- 211.

Searl, A., Baxter, P. J. & Cowie, H. (2002) 'Exposure to volcanic ash on Montserrat, British West Indies', Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 46(Supplement 1), 35-38.

Searl, A., Nicholl, A. & Baxter, P. J. (2002) 'Assessment of the exposure of islanders to ash from the Soufriere Hills volcano, Montserrat, British West Indies', Occupational and Environmental Medicine,59(8), 523-531.

Toxicological

BéruBé, K., Jones, T, Housley, D., & Richards, R. (2004) ‘The respiratory toxicity of airborne volcanic ash from the Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat’, Mineralogical Magazine, 68 (1), 47-60.

Cullen, R. T. & Institute of Occupational Medicine. (2002) Toxicity of volcanic ash from Montserrat[electronic resource], Research report, Edinburgh: Institute of Occupational Medicine.

Cullen, R. T. & Searl, A. (1998) Preliminary toxicological hazard assessment of Montserrat volcanic ash: in vitro cytotoxicity. Edinburgh: Institute of Occupational Medicine.

Housley, D. G., Berube, K. A., Jones, T. P., Anderson, S., Pooley, F. D. & Richards, R. J. (2002) 'Pulmonary epithelial response in the rat lung to instilled Montserrat respirable dusts and their major mineral components', Occupational Environmental Medicine, 59, 466-472.

Jones, T.P., & BéruBé, K. (2011) ‘The bioreactivity of the sub-10μm component of volcanic ash: Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat’, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 194, 128-134.

Lee, S. H. & Richards, R. J. (2004) 'Montserrat volcanic ash induces lymph node granuloma and delayed lung inflammation', Toxicology, 195, 155-165.

Tomašek, I., Horwell, C.J., Damby, D.E., Barosova, H., Geers, C., Petri-Fink, A., Rothen-Rutishauser, B., Clift, M.J.D., (2016). Combined exposure of diesel exhaust particles and respirable Soufrière Hills volcanic ash causes a (pro-)inflammatory response in an in vitro multicellular epithelial tissue barrier model. Particle and Fibre Toxicology. 13:67.

Wilson, M. R., Stone, V., Cullen, R. T., Searl, A., Maynard, R. L. & Donaldson, K. (2000) 'In vitro toxicology of respirable Montserrat volcanic ash', Occupational Environmental Medicine, 57, 727-733.

Physicochemical

Baxter, P. J., Bonadonna, C., Dupree, R., Hards, V. L., Kohn, S. C., Murphy, M. D., Nichols, A., Nicholson, R. A., Norton, G., Searl, A., Sparks, R. S. J. & Vickers, B. P. (1999) 'Cristobalite in volcanic ash of the Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat, British West Indies', Science, 283(5405), 1142-1145.

Baxter, P.J., Searl, A., Cowie, H.A., Jarvis, D. and Horwell, C.J. (2014) ‘Evaluating the respiratory health risks of volcanic ash at the eruption of the Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat, 1995-2010’, In: Wadge, G., Robertson R., & Voight, B. (Eds) The Eruption of Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat from 2000 to 2010. Memoir of the Geological Society of London, 39(22), 407-425.

Horwell, C. J., Braña, L. P., Sparks, R.S.J., Murphy, M. D. & Hards, V. L. (2001) 'A geochemical investigation of fragmentation and physical fractionation in pyroclastic flows from the Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat', Journal of Volcanological Geothermal Research, 109, 247-262.

Horwell, C. J., Fenoglio, I., Ragnarsdottir, K.V., Sparks, R. S. & Fubini, B. (2003) 'Surface reactivity of volcanic ash from the eruption of Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat, West Indies with implications for health hazards', Environmental Research, 93(2), 202-215.

Horwell, C. J., Sparks, R. S. J., Brewer, T. S., Llewellin, E. W. & Williamson, B. J.

(2003) 'Characterization of respirable volcanic ash from the Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat, with implications for human health hazards', Bulletin of Volcanology, 65(5), 346-362.

Horwell, C.J., Hillman, S.E., Cole, P.D., Loughlin, S.C., Llewellin, E.W., Damby, D.E., & Christopher, T.A. (2014) ‘Cristobalite content of ash generated by 15 years of activity of the Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat’, In: Wadge, G., Robertson, R., & Voight, B. (Eds) The Eruption of Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat from 2000 to 2010. Memoir of the Geological Society of London, 39(21), 399-406.

Other

Avery, J.G. (2003) ‘The aftermath of a disaster - Recovery following the volcanic eruptions in Montserrat, West Indies’, West Indian Medical Journal, 52(2), 131-135.

Cowie, H. A., Baxter, P. J., Hincks, T., Searl, A., Sparks, R. S. J., Tran, C. L., Aspinall, W. & Woo, G. (2003) Risk assessment for silicosis and exposure to volcanic ash on Montserrat. London: UK Department for International Development.

Hincks, T. K., Aspinall, W. P., Baxter, P. J., Searl, A., Sparks, R. S. J. & Woo, G. (2006) 'Long term exposure to respirable volcanic ash on Montserrat: a time series simulation', Bulletin of Volcanology,68(3), 266-284.

United States
Mount St Helens

Epidemiological and clinical studies

Baxter, P. J., Ing, R., Falk, H., French, J., Stein, G. F., Bernstein, R. S., Merchant, J. A. & Allard, J. (1981) 'Mount St Helens eruptions, May 18 to June 12, 1980. An overview of the acute health impact', JAMA, 246(22), 2585-2589.

Baxter, P. J., Ing, R., Falk, H. & Plikaytis, B. (1983) 'Mount St. Helens eruptions: the acute respiratory effects of volcanic ash in a North American community', Archives of Environmental Health, 38, 138-143.

Bernstein, R. S., McCawley, M. A., Attfield, M. D., Green, F. H. Y. & Olenchock, S. A. (1982) 'Epidemiological assessment of the risk for adverse pulmonary effects from persistent occupational exposures to Mount St. Helens volcanic ash (tephra)', In: Keller, S. A. C. (ed) Mount St. Helens: one year later. Cheney, WA: Eastern Washington University Press, 207-213.

Bernstein, R. S., McCawley, M. A., Attfield, M. D., Green, F. H. Y., Olenchock, S. A. & Dollberg, D. D. (1981) Evaluation of the potential pulmonary hazards of breathing-zone exposures to Mount St. Helens volcanic ash in loggers: the results of short-term toxicological, environmental and epidemiological studies. Atlanta: DHHS (NOISH).

Buist, A.S. (1988) ‘Evaluation of the short and long term effects of exposure to inhaled volcanic ash from Mt. St. Helens’, Kagoshima international conference on volcanoes proceedings, Kagoshima, Japan, 709–712.

Buist, A. S., Johnson, L. R., Vollmer, W. M., Sexton, G. J. & Kanarek, P. H. (1983) 'Acute effects of volcanic ash from Mount Saint Helens on lung function in children', American Review of Respiratory Disease, 127, 714-719.

Buist, A. S., Vollmer, W. M., Johnson, L. R., Bernstein, R. S. & McCamant, L. E. (1986) 'A four-year prospective study of the respiratory effects of volcanic ash from Mt. St. Helens', American Review of Respiratory Disease, 133(4), 526-534.

Craighead, J. E., Adler, K. B., Butler, G. B., Emerson, R. J., Mossman, B. T. & Woodworth, C. D. (1983) 'Health-Effects of Mount St-Helens Volcanic Dust', Laboratory Investigation, 48(1), 5-12.

Fraunfelder, F. T., Kalina, R. E., Buist, R. S. & Johnson, D. S. (1983) 'Ocular effects following the volcanic eruptions of Mount St. Helens', Archives of Ophthalmology, 101, 376-378.

Johnson, K. A., Loftsgaarden, D. O. & Gideon, R. A. (1982) 'The effects of Mount St. Helens ash on the pulmonary function of 120 elementary school children', American Review of Respiratory Disease, 126, 1066-1069.

Merchant, J. A., Baxter, P. J., Bernstein, R. S., McCawley, M., Falk, H., Stein, G., Ing, R. & Attfield, M. (1982) 'Health implications of the Mount St. Helens eruption: epidemiological considerations', Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 26, 911-919.

Olenchock, S. A., Mull, J. C., Mentnech, M. S., Lewis, D. M., & Bernstein, R. S. (1983) ‘Changes in humoral immunologic parameters after exposure to volcanic ash’, Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, 11(3), 395-404.

Vallyathan, V., Mentnech, M. S., Tucker, J. H., & Green, F. H. (1983) ‘Pulmonary response to Mount St. Helens' volcanic ash’, Environmental Research, 30(2), 361-371.

Weniger, B. G., Blaser, M. J., Gedrose, J., Lippy, E. C., & Juranek, D. D. (1983) ‘An outbreak of waterborne giardiasis associated with heavy water runoff due to warm weather and volcanic ashfall’, American Journal of Public Health,73(8), 868-872.

Toxicological

Adler, K.B., Mossman, B.T., Butler, G.B., Jean, L.M., & Craighead, J.E. (1984) ‘Interaction of Mount St. Helens’ volcanic ash with cells of the respiratory epithelium’, Environmental Research, 35, 346–361.

Agopyan, N., Head, J., Yu, S. & Simon, S. A. (2004) 'TRPV1 receptors mediate particulate matter- induced apoptosis', American Journal of Physiological: Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology, 286(3), L563-72.

Akematsu T., Dodson R.F., Williams M.G., & Hurst G.A. (1982) ‘The short-term effects of volcanic ash on the small airways of the respiratory system’, Environmental Research, 29, 358–370.

Beck, B. D., Brain, J. D. & Bohannon, D. E. (1982) 'The pulmonary toxicity of an ash sample from the Mount St. Helens volcano', Experimental Lung Research, 2, 289-301.

Bernstein, R. S., McCawley, M. A., Attfield, M. D., Green, F. H. Y., Olenchock, S. A. & Dollberg, D. D. (1981) Evaluation of the potential pulmonary hazards of breathing-zone exposures to Mount St. Helens volcanic ash in loggers: the results of short-term toxicological, environmental and epidemiological studies. Atlanta: DHHS (NOISH).

Bonner, J. C., Rice, A. B., Lindroos, P. M., O'Brian, P. O., Dreher, K. L., Rosas, I., Alfaro-Moreno, E. & Osornio-Vargas, A. R. (1998) 'Induction of the lung myofibroblast PDGF receptor system by urban ambient particles in Mexico city', American Journal of Respiratory Cell Molecular Biology, 19, 672-680.

Castranova, V., Bowman, L., Shreve, J. M., Jones, G. S. & Miles, P. R. (1982) 'Volcanic ash: toxicity to isolated lung cells', Journal of Toxicological, Environmental Health, 9(2), 317-325.

Dodson, R. F., Martin, R. R., O'Sullivan, M. F. & Hurst, G. A. (1982) 'In vitro response of human pulmonary macrophages with volcanic ash: a morphological study', Experimental Molecular Pathology, 37, 406-412.

Fedan, J. S., Ma, J., Fromelel, G. & Mentneck, M. S. (1981) 'Effect of Mount St. Helens ash on the response of rat trachea to smooth muscle agonists', Environmental Research, 26, 497-502.

Fruchter, J. S., Robertson, D. E., Evans, J. C., Olsen, K. B., Lepel, E. A., Laul, J. C., Abel, K. H., Sanders, R. W., Jackson, P. O., Wogman, N. S., Perkins, R. W., Vant Tuyl, R. L., Beauchamp, R. H., Shade, J. W., Daniel, J. L., Erikson, R. L., Sehmel, G. A., Lee, R. N., Robinson, A. V., Moss, O. R., Briant, J. K. & Cannon, W. C. (1980) 'Mount St. Helens ash from the 18 May 1980 eruption: Chemical, Physical, Mineralogical and Biological Properties', Science, 209, 1116-1125.

Graham, J. A., Miller, F. J., Davies, D. W., Hiteshew, M. E. & Walsh, L. C. (1985) 'Inhalation studies of Mt. St. Helens volcanic ash in animals. I. Introduction and exposure system', Environmental Research, 37(1), 61-71.

Green, F. H. Y., Bowman, L., Castranova, V., Dollberg, D. D., Elliot, J. A., Fedan, J. S., Hahon, N., Judy, D. J., Major, P. C., Mentnech, M. S., Miles, P. R., Mull, J., Olenchock, S., Ong, T., Pailes, W. M., Resnick, H., Stettler, L. E., Tucker, J. G., Vallyathan, V. & Whong, W. (1982) 'Health implications of the Mount St. Helens’ eruption: Laboratory investigations', Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 26, 921-933.

Grose, E. C., Grady, M. A., Illing, J. W., Daniels, M. J., Selgrade, M. K. & Hatch, G. E. (1985) 'Inhalation studies of Mt. St. Helens volcanic ash in animals: III. Host Defense Mechanisms', Environmental Research, 37, 84-92.

Huang, Y. C., Li, Z., Harder, S. D. & Soukup, J. M. (2004) 'Apoptotic and inflammatory effects induced by different particles in human alveolar macrophages', Inhalation Toxicology, 16(14), 863-878.

Kornbrust, D. J. & Hatch, G. E. (1984) 'Effect of silica and volcanic ash on the content of lung alveolar and tissue phospholipids', Environmental Research, 35, 140-153.

Kraemer, M. J. & McCarthy, M. M. (1985) 'Childhood asthma hospitalization rates in Spokane County, Washington', Journal of Asthma, 22, 37-43.

Martin, T. R., Ayars, G., Butler, J. & Altmn, L. C. (1984) 'The comparative toxicity of volcanic ash and quartz. Effects on cells derived from the human lung', American Review of Respiratory Disease, 130(5), 778-782.

Martin, T. R., Chi, E. Y., Covert, D. S., Hodson, W. A., Kessler, D. E., Moore, W. E., Altman, L. C. & Butler, J. (1983) 'Comparative effects of inhaled volcanic ash and quartz in rats', American Review of Respiratory Disease, 128(1), 144-152.

Martin, T. R., Wehner, A. P. & Butler, J. (1986) 'Evaluation of Physical Health-Effects Due to Volcanic Hazards - the Use of Experimental Systems to Estimate the Pulmonary Toxicity of Volcanic Ash', American Journal of Public Health, 76, 59-65.

Martin, T. R., Wehner, A. P. & Butler, J. (1983) 'Pulmonary toxicity of Mt. St. Helens volcanic ash: a review of experimental studies', American Review of Respiratory Disease, 128, 158-162.

Nania, J. & Bruya, T. E. (1982) 'In the wake of Mount St. Helens', Annals of Emergency Medicine, 11, 184-191.

Raub, J. A., Hatch, G. E., Mercer, R. R., Grady, M. & Hu, P.-C. (1985) 'Inhalation studies of Mt. St. Helens volcanic ash in animals: II. Lung function, biochemistry and histology', Environmental Research, 37, 72-83.

Robinson, A. V. & Schneider, R. P. (1982) In vitro toxicity of Mount St. Helens volcanic ash: final report to NIEHS on Task 3, Health effects of Mount St. Helens volcano. Richland, WA: Battelle Pacific North- west Laboratories.

Sanders, C. L., Conklin, A. W., Gelman, R. A., Adee, R. R. & Rhoads, K. (1982) 'Pulmonary toxicity of Mount St. Helens volcanic ash', Environmental Research, 27, 118-135.

Sanders, C. L., Rhoads, K. & Mahaffey, J. A. (1983) 'Long-term reactivity of lung and mediastinal lymph nodes following intratracheal instillation of sandy loam soil of Mount St. Helens volcanic ash', Environmental Research, 32, 188-198.

Schiff, L. J., Byrne, M. M., Elliott, S. F., Moore, S. J., Ketels, K. V. & Graham, J. A. (1981) 'Response of hamster trachea in organ culture to Mount St. Helens volcano ash', Scanning Electron Microscopy, 11, 169-178.

Vallyathan, V., Mentnech, M. S., Stettler, L. E., Dollberg, D. D. & Green, F. H. (1983) 'Mount St. Helens' volcanic ash: hemolytic activity', Environmental Research, 30, 349-360.

Vallyathan, V., Mentnech, M. S., Tucker, J. H. & Green, F. H. (1983) 'Pulmonary response to Mount St. Helens’ volcanic ash', Environmental Research, 30, 361-371.

Vallyathan, V., Robinson, V., Reasor, M., Stettler, L. & Bernstein, R. (1984) 'Comparative in vitro cytotoxicity of volcanic ashes from Mount St Helens, El Chichon, and Galunggung', Journal of Toxicological Environmental Health, 14(5-6), 641-654.

Veronesi, B., de Haar, C., Lee, L. & Oortgiesen, M. (2002) 'The surface charge of visible particulate matter predicts biological activation in human bronchial epithelial cells', Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 178(3), 144-54.

Warheit, D. B., Overby, L. H., George, G. & Brody, A. R. (1988) 'Pulmonary macrophages are attracted to inhaled particles through complement activation', Experimental Lung Research, 14(1), 51-66.

Wehner, A.P., Dagle, G.E., Clark, M.L., & Buschbom, R.L. (1986) ‘Lung changes in rats following inhalation exposure to volcanic ash for two years’, Environmental Research, 40, 499–517.

Wehner, A. P., Wilkerson, C. L. & Stevens, D. L. (1984) 'Lung clearance of neutron-activated Mount St. Helens ash in the rat', Environmental Research, 35, 211-217.

Wiester, M. J., Setzer, C. J., Barry, B. E., Mercer, R. R. & Grady, M. A. (1985) 'Inhalation studies of Mt. St. Helens volcanic ash in animals: Respiratory mechanics, airway reactivity and deposition', Environmental Research, 36, 230-240.

Physicochemical

Bernstein, R. S., McCawley, M. A., Attfield, M. D., Green, F. H. Y., Olenchock, S. A. & Dollberg, D. D. (1981) Evaluation of the potential pulmonary hazards of breathing-zone exposures to Mount St. Helens volcanic ash in loggers: the results of short-term toxicological, environmental and epidemiological studies. Atlanta: DHHS (NOISH).

Cannon, W. C. (1980) 'Mount St. Helens ash from the 18 May 1980 eruption: Chemical, physical, Mineralogical and Biological Properties', Science, 209, 1116-1125.

Davis, B. L., Johnson, L. R., Griffen, D. T., Phillips, W. R., Stevens, R. K. & Maughan, D.

(1981) 'Quantitative analysis of Mount St. Helens ash by X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry', Journal of Applied Meteorology, 20, 922-933.

Dollberg, D. D., Bolyard, M. L. & Smith, D. L. (1986) 'Evaluation of Physical Health-Effects Due to Volcanic Hazards - Crystalline Silica in Mount St-Helens Volcanic Ash', American Journal of Public Health, 76, 53-58.

Fruchter, J. S., Robertson, D. E., Evans, J. C., Olsen, K. B., Lepel, E. A., Laul, J. C., Abel, K. H., Sanders,

R. W., Jackson, P. O., Wogman, N. S., Perkins, R. W., Vant Tuyl, R. L., Beauchamp, R. H., Shade, J. W., Daniel, J. L., Erikson, R. L., Sehmel, G. A., Lee, R. N., Robinson, A. V., Moss, O. R., Briant, J. K. & Cannon, W. C. (1980) 'Mount St. Helens ash from the 18 May 1980 eruption: Chemical, physical, Mineralogical and Biological Properties', Science, 209, 1116-1125.

Gage, D. R. & Farwell, S. O. (1981) 'Laser Raman spectrometry for the determination of crystalline silica polymorphs in volcanic ash', Annals of Chemistry, 53, 2123-2127.

USA - Other

Benke, R. R., Hooper, D. M., Durham, J. S., Bannon, D. R., Compton, K. L., Necsoiu, M. & McGinnis, R.N. (2009) 'Measurement of airborne particle concentrations near the Sunset Crater Volcano, Arizona', Health Physics, 96(2), 97-117.

Choudhury, A. H., Gordian, M. E. & Morris, S. S. (1997) 'Associations between respiratory illness and PM10 air pollution', Archives of Environmental Health, 52, 113-117.

Gordian, M. E., Ozkaynak, H., Xue, J. P., Morris, S. S. & Spengler, J. D. (1996) 'Particulate air pollution and respiratory disease in Anchorage, Alaska', Environmental Health Perspectives, 104(3), 290-297.

Gordian, M. E. & Choudhury, A. H. (2003) 'PM10 and asthma medication in schoolchildren', Archives of Environmental Health, 58(1), 42-47.

Longo, B.M. & Longo, A.A. (2013) ‘Volcanic ash in the air we breathe’, Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine, 8, 52.

Asia

Indonesia

Damby, D. E., Horwell, C. J., Baxter, P. J., Delmelle, P., Donaldson, K., Dunster, C., Fubini, B., Murphy, F.A., Nattrass, C., Sweeney, S., Tetley, T.D., & Tomatis, M. (2013) ‘The respiratory health hazard of tephra from the 2010 Centennial eruption of Merapi with implications for occupational mining of deposits’, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 261, 376-387.

Nicol, E.R., Lee, E.S. & Murrow, P.J. (1985) ‘Respirable Crystalline Silica in Ash Erupted from Galunggung Volcano, Indonesia, 1982’, Atmospheric Environment, 19(7), 1027-1028.

Japan
Sakurajima Volcano

Epidemiology and clinical studies

*Higashi, H., Yano, E., Yokoyama, Y., Nishii, S., Koizumi, A. & Maeda, K. (1987) 'Seasonal variations in the responses to a respiratory symptom questionnaire: a study in an area exposed to volcanic ash', Japanese Journal of Public Health, 34, 453-458.

Higuchi, K., Koriyama, C., & Akiba, S. (2012) ‘Increased mortality of respiratory diseases, including lung cancer, in the area with large amount of ashfall from Mount Sakurajima volcano’, Journal of Environmental and Public Health, Article ID 257831.

Kimura, K., Sakamoto, T., Miyazaki, M., Uchino, E., Kinukawa, N. & Isashiki, M. (2005) ‘Effects of volcanic ash on ocular symptoms - Results of a 10-year survey on schoolchildren’, Ophthalmology, 112(3), 478-481.

*Research Committee on Volcanic Emissions. (1982) Research report on the human effect of volcanic exhaust (Sakurajima), 1980–1981 report. Tuberculosis and chronic disease division, Public Health Bureau, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Tokyo.

Uda, H., Akiba, S., Hatano, H. & Shinkura, R. (1999) 'Asthma-like disease in the children living in the neighborhood of Mt. Sakurajima', Journal of Epidemiology, 9(1), 27-31.

*Wakisaka, I., Takano, A. & Watanabe, N. (1978) 'Health effects of volcanic ashes of Mt. Sakurajima',

Japanese Journal of Public Health, 25(9), 455-461.

*Wakisaka, I. & Yanagihashi, T. (1986) 'Week-to-week variations in mortality in areas exposed to volcanic air pollution', Journal of the Japanese Society of Air Pollution, 21(4), 322-329.

*Wakisaka, I., Yangihashi, T., Ono, M. & Hirano, S. (1985) 'Health Effects of volcanic activities of Mt, Sakurajima in the mortality statistics', Journal of the Japanese Society of Air Pollution, 20(2), 120-127.

*Wakisaka, I., Yanagihashi, T., Sato, M. & Tomari, T. (1989) 'Health effects of volcanic air pollution--an analysis of the national health insurance', Nippon Eiseigaku Zasshi, 44(5), 977-86.

*Wakisaka, I., Yanagihashi, T., Tomari, T. & Ando, T. (1983) 'Effect of volcanic activities of Mt. Sakurajima on mortality due to respiratory diseases', Japanese Journal of Public Health, 30(3), 109-116.

*Wakisaka, I., Yanagihashi, T., Tomari, T. & Ando, T. (1983) 'Health effects of volcanic activities of Mt. Sakurajima on school children', Japanese Journal of Public Health, 30(3), 101-108.

*Wakisaka, I., Yangihashi, T. & Tomari, T. (1984) 'Effects of the volcanic activities of Mt. Sakurajima on mortality figures', Japanese Journal of Public Health, 31(10), 548-556.

*Wakisaka, I., Yanagihashi, T., Tomari, T. & Ando, T. (1988) 'Effects of volcanic activity on the mortality figures for respiratory diseases', Japanese Journal of Hygiene, 42(6), 1101-1110.

*Yano, E., Higashi, H., Nishii, S., Koizumi, A. & Yokoyama, Y. (1987) 'Pulmonary function of loggers exposed to the volcanic ash from Mt. Sakurajima', Japanese Journal of Public Health, 34, 251-254.

Yano, E., Nishii, S. & Yokoyama, Y. (1986) 'Chronic pulmonary effects of volcanic ash: An epidemiologic study', Archives of Environmental Health, 41(2), 94-99.

Yano, E., Yokoyama, Y., Higashi, H., Nishii, S., Maeda, K. & Koizumi, A. (1990) 'Health-Effects of Volcanic Ash - a Repeat Study', Archives of Environmental Health, 45(6), 367-373.

*Yoshida, Y. (1984) 'Health effects of volcanic ashes from Mt. Sakurajima on the school children', Igaku Kenkyu, 54(3), 235-78.

Toxicological

Kariya, M. (1992) 'Is there any effect of volcanic eruptions of Mount Sakurajima on human lungs? – Histopathological investigation and measurement of intrapulmonary particulate deposits amounts', Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine, 166, 331-343.

Kariya, M., Goto, M., Hasui, K., Yamamoto, N., Tahiro, Y. & Sato, E. (1992) 'Is there any effect of volcanic eruptions of Mount Sakurajima on canine lungs exposed naturally? – Morphometric analysis of intrapulmonary particulate deposit amount and histopathological investigations', Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine, 167, 197-205.

Samukawa, T., Arasidani, K., Hori, H., Hirano, H & Arima, T. (2003) ‘c-jun mRNA expression and profilin mRNA amplification in rat alveolar macrophages exposed to volcanic ash and sulfur dioxide’, Industrial Health, 41(4), 313-319.

*Shirakawa, M., Fukushuma, R. & Kyushima, K. (1984) 'Experimental studies on the effects of Mt. Sakurajima volcanic ashes on the respiratory organs', Japanese Journal of Industrial Health, 26(2), 130- 146.

Yano, E., Takeuchi, A., Nishii, S., Koizumi, A., Poole, A., Brown, R. C., Johnson, N. F., Evans, P. H. & Yukiyama, Y. (1985) 'In vitro biological effects of volcanic ash from Mount Sakurajima', Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, 16(1), 127-35.

Physicochemical

Hillman, S.E., Horwell, C.J., Densmore, A., Damby, D.E., Fubini, B., Ishimine, Y. & Tomatis, M. (2012) ‘Sakurajima volcano: a physico-chemical study of the health consequences of long-term exposure to volcanic ash’, Bulletin of Volcanology, 74, 913–930. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00445-012-0575-3

Mt. Asama

Shimizu, Y., Dobashi, K., Hisada, T., Ono, A., Todokoro, M., Iijima, H., Utsugi, M., Kakegawa, S., Iizuka, K., Ishizuka, T., Morikawa, A. & Mori, M. (2007) 'Acute impact of volcanic ash on asthma symptoms and treatment', International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology, 20(Suppl 2), 9-14.

Miyake Volcano

*Shojima, J., Ikushima, S., Ando, T., Mochida, A., Yanagawa, T., Takemura, T. & Oritsu, M. (2006) 'A case of volcanic ash lung: report of a case', Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi, 44(3), 192-6.

*Articles in Japanese (English abstract)

Philippines

Alabado, K. L. P., Alviedo, N. J. B., Amosco, M. L., Campos, R. A. O., Clemente, E. M. E. L., Cruz, G., Cruz, L.M.P., de Luna, J.C., Dequina, M.T.B., Geronimo, O.O., Guanzon, M.D.A., Limgenco, T.E.P., Navarro, A., Magno, M.A.A., Samonte, M.V.A., Santiago, C.F.A., & Taruc, C.P.G. (1993) ‘The histopathologic effects of 24-hour and 144-hour exposure to Mt. Pinatubo ash on the respiratory system of rats’, Acta Medica Philippina, 29(2) 65-70.

St Vincent

Leus, X. & West, C. M. (1981) 'Asthmatic bronchitis associated with a volcanic eruption in St. Vincent, West Indies', Disasters, 5, 67-69.

Woods, D. C. & Chuan, R. L. (1982) 'Fine particles in the Soufrière eruption plume', Science, 216(4550), 1118-1119.

Australasia

New Zealand

Bradshaw, L., Fishwick, D., Kemp, T., Lewis, S., Rains, N., Slater, T., Pearce, N. & Carne, J. (1997) 'Under the volcano: fire, ash and asthma?', The New Zealand Medical Journal, 110, 90-91.

Cronin, S. J., Neall, V. E., Lecointre, J. A., Hedley, M. J. & Loganathan, P. (2003) ‘Environmental hazards of fluoride in volcanic ash: a case study from Ruapehu volcano, New Zealand’, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 121, 271-291.

Hickling, J., Clements, M., Weinstein, P. & Woodward, A. (1999) 'Acute health effects of the Mount Ruapehu (New Zealand) volcanic eruption of June 1996', International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 9(2), 97-107.

Newnham, R. M., Dirks, K. N. & Samaranayake, D. (2010) ‘An investigation into long-distance health impacts of the 1996 eruption of Mt Ruapehu, New Zealand’, Atmospheric Environment, 44(12), 1568- 1578.

Papua New Guinea

Le Blond, J. S., Horwell, C. J., Baxter, P. J., Michnowicz, S. A. K., Tomatis, M., Fubini, B., Delmelle, P., Dunster, C. & Patia, H. (2010) ‘Mineralogical analyses and in vitro screening tests for the rapid evaluation of the health hazard of volcanic ash at Rabaul volcano, Papua New Guinea’, Bulletin of Volcanology, 72(9), 1077-1092.

Vanuatu

Cronin, S. J. & Sharp, D.S. (2002) ‘Environmental impacts on health from continuous volcanic activity at Yasur (Tanna) and Ambrym, Vanuatu’, International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 12(2), 109-123.

Europe

Greece

Trevisanato, S. I. (2006) 'Six medical papyri describe the effects of Santorini's volcanic ash, and provide Egyptian parallels to the so-called biblical plagues', Medical Hypotheses, 67(1), 187-190.

Iceland
Eyjafjallajökull

Carlsen, H.K., Gislason, T., Benediktsdottir, B., Kolbeinsson, T.B., Hauksdottir, A., Thorsteinsson, T., & Briem, H. (2012) ‘A survey of early health effects of the Eyjafjallajökull 2010 eruption in Iceland: a population-based study’, BMJ Open, 2(2).

Carlsen, H.K., Hauksdottir, A., Valdimarsdottir, U.A., Gíslason, T., Einarsdottir, G., Runolfsson, H., Briem, H., Finnbjornsdottir, R.G., Gudmundsson, S., Kolbeinsson, T.B., Thorsteinsson, T., & Pétursdóttir, G. (2012) ‘Health effects following the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption: a cohort study’, BMJ Open, 2(6).

Collette, A., Favez, O., Meleux, F., Chiappini, L., Haeffelin, M., Morille, Y., Malherbe, L., Papin, A, Bessagnet, B., Menut, L., Leoz, E., & Rouïlle, L. (2010) ‘Assessing in near real time the impact of the April 2010 Eyjafjallajökull ash plume on air quality’, Atmospheric Environment, 45(5), 1217-1221.

Elliot, A. J., Singh, N., Loveridge, P., Harcourt, S., Smith, S., Pnaiser, R., Kavanagh, K., Robertson, C., Ramsay, C. N., McMenamin, J., Kibble, A., Murray, V., Ibbotson, S., Catchpole, M., McCloskey, B. and Smith, G. E. (2010) ‘Syndromic surveillance to assess the potential public health impact of the Icelandic volcanic ash plume across the United Kingdom, April 2010’, Eurosurveillance, 15(23), 6-9.

Gislason, S. R., Hassenkam, T., Nedel, S., Bovet, N., Eiriksdottir, E. S., Alfredsson, H. A., Hem, C. P., Balogh, Z. I., Dideriksen, K., Oskarsson, N., Sigfusson, B., Larsen, G. and Stipp, S. L. S. (2011) ‘Characterization of Eyjafjallajokull volcanic ash particles and a protocol for rapid risk assessment’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108(18), 7307-7312.

Gudmundsson, G. (2011) ‘Respiratory health effects of volcanic ash with special reference to Iceland. A review’, Clinical Respiratory Journal, 5(1), 2-9.

Gudmundsson, G., Powers, L. S., Reisetter, A., Baltrusaitis, J., Grassian, V., Monick, M. M., & Hansdottir, S. (2011) ‘Ash From The Icelandic Eyjafjallajokull Volcano Inhibits Autophagy And Increases Stress Responses In Alveolar Macrophages’, American Thoracic Society International Conference Abstracts, 183, A1428.

Horwell, C. J., Baxter, P. J., Hillman, S. E., Calkins, J. A., Damby, D. E., Delmelle, P., Donaldson, K., Dunster, C., Kelly, F.J., Le Bond, J.S., Livi, K.J., Murphy, F., Nattrass, C., Sweeney, S., Tetley, T.D., Thordarson, T., & Tomatis, M. (2013) ‘Physicochemical and toxicological profiling of ash from the 2010 and 2011 eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull and Grímsvötn volcanoes, Iceland using a rapid respiratory hazard assessment protocol’, Environmental Research, 127, 63-73.

Lähde, A., Gudmundsdottir, S.S., Joutsensaari, J., Tapper, U., Ruusunen, J., Ihalainen, M., Karhunen, T., Torvela, T., Jokiniemi, J., Järvinen, K., Gíslason, S.R., Briem, H., & Gizurarson, S. (2013) ‘In vitro evaluation of pulmonary deposition of airborne volcanic ash’, Atmospheric Environment, 70, 18-27.

Monick, M. M., Baltrusaitis, J., Powers, L. S., Borcherding, J. A., Caraballo, J. C., Mudunkotuwa, I., Peate, D.W., Walters, K., Gudmundsson, G., & Comellas, A. P. (2013) ‘Effects of Eyjafjallajökull volcanic ash on innate immune system responses and bacterial growth in vitro’, Environmental Health Perspectives, 121(6), 691-698.

Oudin, A., Carlsen, H. K., Forsberg, B., & Johansson, C. (2013) ‘Volcanic Ash and Daily Mortality in Sweden after the Icelandic Volcano Eruption of May 2011’, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 10(12), 6909-6919.

Schäfer, K., Thomas, W., Peters, A., Ries, L., Obleitner, F., Schnelle-Kreis, J., Birmili, W., Diemer, J., Fricke, W., Junkermann, W., Pitz, M., Emeis, S., Forkel, R., Suppan, P., Flentje, H., Wichmann, H.E., Gilge, S., Meinhardt, F., Zimmermann, R., Weinhold, K., Soentgen, J., Münkel, C., Freuer, C., & Cyrys, J. (2011) ‘Influences of the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull volcanic plume on air quality in the northern Alpine region’, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, 11(3), 9083-9132.

Thorsteinsson, T., Jóhannsson, T., Stohl, A., & Kristiansen, N. I. (2012) ‘High levels of particulate matter in Iceland due to direct ash emissions by the Eyjafjallajökull eruption and resuspension of deposited ash’, Journal of Geophysical Research, 117(B1).

Wilkie, M. E. M., Anderson, M., & Schembri, S. (2010) ‘P120 Observational study of acute admissions with non-infective asthma and COPD to Perth Royal Infirmary following the eruption of Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajokull and subsequent ash cloud formation’, Thorax, 65(4), A128-A129.

Italy
Mt Etna

Alparone, S., Andronico, D., Sgroi, T., Ferrari, F., Lodato, L., & Reitano, D. (2007) ‘Alert system to mitigate tephra fallout hazards at Mt. Etna Volcano, Italy’, Natural Hazards, 43, 333–350.

Barsotti, S., Andronico, D., Neri, A., Del Carlo, P., Baxter, P. J., Aspinall, W. P. & Hincks, T. (2010) ‘Quantitative assessment of volcanic ash hazards for health and infrastructure at Mt. Etna (Italy) by numerical simulation’, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 192(1-2), 85-96.

Censi, P., Tamburo, E., Speziale, S., Zuddas, P., Randazzo, L. A., Punturo, R., Cuttitta, A., & Aricò, P. (2011) ‘Yttrium and lanthanides in human lung fluids, probing the exposure to atmospheric fallout’, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 186(2), 1103-1110.

Censi, P., Zuddas, P., Randazzo, L. A., Tamburo, E., Speziale, S., Cuttitta, A., Punturo, R., Arico, P., & Santagata, R. (2011) ‘Source and nature of inhaled atmospheric dust from trace element analyses of human bronchial fluids’, Environmental Science & Technology, 45(15), 6262-6267.

Diana, B., Finocchiaro, A. M., La Delfa, S., Patane, G., Presti, F., Timpanaro, M. & Tringali, G. (2006) ‘Aerobiological monitoring applications in the Etnean volcanic plume evaluation (Mt. Etna, Sicily) and correlation with allergopathies’, Aerobiologia, 22(4), 285-293.

*Fano, V., Cernigliaro, A., Scondotto, S., Cuccia, M., Forastiere, F., Nicolosi, A., Oliveri, C., Scillieri, R., Distefano, P. and Perucci, C. A. (2005) 'Health effects of environmental contamination due to volcanic ash of Mount Etna in autumn 2002', Epidemiologia e Prevenzione, 29(3-4), 180-7.

Fano, V., Cernigliaro, A., Scondotto, S., Perucci, C. A., & Forastiere, F. (2010) ‘The fear of volcano: short-term health effects after Mount Etna's eruption in 2002’, European Respiratory Journal, 36(5), 1216-1218.

Lombardo, D., Ciancio, N., Campisi, R., Di Maria, A., Bivona, L., Poletti, V., Mistretta, A., Biggeri, A., & Di Maria, G. (2013) ‘A retrospective study on acute health effects due to volcanic ash exposure during the eruption of Mount Etna (Sicily) in 2002’, Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine, 8, 51.

Martin, R. S., Mather, T. A., Pyle, D. M., Power, M., Allen, A. G., Aiuppa, A., Horwell, C. J. & Ward, E.P.W. (2008) 'Chemical and morphological characterisation of volcanic aerosols and nanoparticles from Mt Etna', Journal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres, 113, D17, Art. No. D17211.

Patania, F., Gagliano, A., Nocera, F. & Sciuto, G. (2003) ‘Adverse effects on peoples' health as a result of the Etna volcano eruption: Singling out and precautionary controls’, Air Pollution XI: Advances in Air Pollution Series, 13, 373-385.

Mt Vesuvius

Horwell, C. J., Stannett, G. W., Andronico, D., Bertagnini, A., Fenoglio, I., Fubini, B., Le Blond, J. S., & Williamson, B. J. (2010) ‘A physico-chemical assessment of the health hazard of Mt. Vesuvius volcanic ash’, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 191(3-4), 222-232.

Poli, U., Ippoliti, M. & Marino, A. (1997) 'Application of remote sensing and GIS to emergency planning and decision making support related to volcanic hazard: Vesuvio's eruption', Remote Sensing '96, 313- 317.

*Article in Italian

Non-peer reviewed

Hodgkins, S. (2013) ‘Geochemical interactions between volatiles and volcanic ash, Mount Etna Italy’, MESci Dissertation, School of Earth and Oceanic Sciences, Cardiff University, Wales, U.K.

Coward, E. (2013) ‘Establishing the fractionation of fine ash particles from Mt. Vesuvius (Naples): Levels of toxicity and potential resulting effect on the health of the human respiratory system’, MESci Dissertation, School of Earth and Oceanic Sciences, Cardiff University, Wales, U.K.

Gas & aerosol impacts

General/Multi-Volcano Studies

D'Alessandro, W. (2006) ‘Gas hazard: an often neglected natural risk in volcanic areas’, Geo- Environment and Landscape Evolution II, 89, 369-378.

D'Alessandro, W., Aiuppa, A., Bellomo, S., Brusca, L., Calabrese, S., Kyriakopoulos, K., Liotta, M., & Longo, M. (2013) ‘Sulphur-gas concentrations in volcanic and geothermal areas in Italy and Greece: Characterising potential human exposures and risks’, Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 131, 1-13.

Durand, M. (2006) 'Indoor air pollution caused by geothermal gases', Building and Environment, 41(11), 1607-1610.

Faivre-Pierret, R., & Le Guern, F. (1983) ‘Health risks linked with inhalation of volcanic gases and aerosols’, Forecasting Volcanic Events, 69-81.

Radiological impacts

Capaccioni, B., Cinelli, G., Mostacci, D., & Tositti, L. (2012) ‘Long-term risk in a recently active volcanic system: evaluation of doses and indoor radiological risk in the quaternary Vulsini Volcanic District (Central Italy)’, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 245-248, 26-36.

Beaubien, S. E., Ciotoli, G. & Lombardi, S. (2003) 'Carbon dioxide and radon gas hazard in the Alban Hills area (central Italy)', Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 123(1-2), 63-80.

Africa

Cameroon
Lake Nyos

Baxter, P.J., & Kapila, M. (1989) ‘Acute health impact of the gas release at Lake Nyos, Cameroon, 1986’,

Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 39(2-3), 265-275.

Baxter,P. J., Kapila, M. & Mfonfu, D. (1989) 'Lake Nyos disaster, Cameroon, 1986: the medical effects of large scale emission of carbon dioxide', British Medical Journal, 298, 1437-1441.

Stupfel, M., & Le Guern, F. (1989) ‘Are there biomedical criteria to assess an acute carbon dioxide intoxication by a volcanic emission?’, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 39(2-3), 247- 264.

Ze, E. A., Roche, N., Atchou, G., Carteret, P. & Huchon, G. J. (1996) 'Respiratory symptoms and peak expiratory flow in survivors of the Nyos disaster', Chest, 110(5), 1278-1281.

Wagner, G. N., Clark, M. A., Koenigsberg, E. J., & Decata, S. J. (1988) ‘Medical evaluation of the victims of the 1986 Lake Nyos disaster’, Journal of Forensic Sciences, 33(4), 899-909.

Reunion Island

Bhugwant, C., Sieja, B., Bessafi, M., Staudacher, T. & Ecormier, J. (2009) 'Atmospheric sulfur dioxide measurements during the 2005 and 2007 eruptions of the Piton de La Fournaise volcano: Implications for human health and environmental changes', Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 184(1- 2), 208-224.

Viane, C., Bhugwant, C., Sieja, B., Staudacher, T. & Demoly, P. (2009) 'Comparative study of the volcanic gas emissions and the hospitalizations for asthma of the Reunion island population between 2005 and 2007', Revue Francaise D’ Allergologie, 49(4), 346-351.

Americas

Chile

Witter, J. B. & Delmelle, P. (2004) 'Acid gas hazards in the crater of Villarrica volcano (Chile)', Revista Geologica De Chile, 31(2), 273-277.

Ecuador

*OPS. (2000) Erupciones volcanicas y proteccion de la salud. Quito, Ecuador:Organizacion Panamerica de la Salud.

*Article in Spanish

Mexico

Goff, F., Janik, C. J., Delgado, H., Werner, C., Counce, D., Stimac, J. A., Siebe, C., Love, S. P., Williams,

S. N., Fischer, T. & Johnson, L. (1998) 'Geochemical surveillance of magmatic volatiles at Popocatepetl volcano, Mexico', Geological Society of America Bulletin, 110(6), 695-710.

Montserrat

Allen, A. G., Baxter, P. J. & Ottley, C. J. (2000) 'Gas and particle emissions from Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat, West Indies: characterization and health hazard assessment', Bulletin of Volcanology, 62(1), 8-19.

Nicaragua

Allen, A. G., Oppenheimer, C., Ferm, M., Baxter, P. J., Horrocks, L. A., Galle, B., McGonigle, A. J. S. & Duffell, H. J. (2002) 'Primary sulfate aerosol and associated emissions from Masaya Volcano, Nicaragua', Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 107(D23), 8.

Baxter, P. J., Stoiber, R. E. & Williams, S. N. (1982) 'Volcanic Gases and Health - Masaya Volcano, Nicaragua', Lancet, 2(8290), 150-151.

Delmelle, P., Stix, J., Baxter, P. J., Garcia-Alvarez, J. & Barquero, J. (2002) 'Atmospheric dispersion, environmental effects and potential health hazard associated with the low-altitude gas plume of Masaya volcano, Nicaragua', Bulletin of Volcanology, 64(6), 423-434.

Delmelle, P., Stix, J., Bourque, C. P.-A., Baxter, P. J., Garcia-Alvarez, J. & Barquero, J. (2001) 'Dry deposition and heavy acid loading in the vicinity of Masaya volcano, a major sulfur and chlorine source in Nicaragua', Environmental Science and Technology, 35, 1289-1293.

Mather, T. A., Allen, A. G., Oppenheimer, C., Pyle, D.M., & McGonigle, A.J.S. (2003) 'Size resolved particle compositions of the tropospheric plume of Masaya volcano, Nicaragua', Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, 46(3), 207-237.

Van Manen, S.M. (2014) ‘Perception of a chronic volcanic hazard: persistent degassing at Masaya volcano, Nicaragua’, Journal of Applied Volcanology, 3, 9.

St Vincent

Cronn, D. R. & Nutmagul, W. (1982) 'Volcanic gasses in the April 1979 Soufriere eruption', Science, 216(4550), 1121-1123.

USA

Cantrell, L., & Young, M. (2009) ‘Fatal fall into a volcanic fumarole’, Wilderness and Environmental Medicine, 20(1), 77-79.

Hill, P. M. (2000) 'Possible asphyxiation from carbon dioxide of a cross-country skier in eastern California: a deadly volcanic hazard', Wilderness & Environmental Medicine, 11(3), 192-195.

Hawai’i

Camara, J.G., & Lagunzad, J.K.D. (2011) ‘Ocular findings in volcanic fog induced conjunctivitis’, Hawaii Medical Journal , 70(12), 262.

Chow, D. C., Grandinetti, A., Fernandez, E., Sutton, A. J., Elias, T., Brooks, B., & Tam, E. K. (2010) ‘Is volcanic air pollution associated with decreased heart-rate variability?’, Heart Asia, 2(1), 36-41.

Heggie, T. W. (2005) 'Reported fatal and non-fatal incidents involving tourists in Hawaii National Park, 1992 - 2002', Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 2005(3):123-131.

Heggie, T. W., Heggie, T. M. & Heggie, T. J. (2009) ‘Death by Volcanic Laze’, Wilderness & Environmental Medicine, 20, 101-103.

Hollingshead, A. T., Businger, S., Draxler, R., Porter, J. & Stevens, D. (2003) 'Dispersion modelling of the Kilauea plume', Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 108(1), 121-144.

Kullman, G. J., Jones, W. G., Cornwell, R. J. & Parker, J. E. (1994) 'Characterization of Air Contaminants Formed by the Interaction of Lava and Sea-Water', Environmental Health Perspectives,102(5), 478-482.

Longo, B.M. (2009) ‘The Kilauea Volcano Adult Health Study’, Nursing Research, 58(1), 23-31.

Longo, B.M. (2013) ‘Adverse health effects associated with increased activity at Kīlauea Volcano: A repeated population-based survey’, ISRN Public Health, 2013, Article ID 475962.

Longo, B.M, Grunder, A, Chuan, R., & Rossignol, A. (2005)SO2 and fine aerosol dispersion from the Kilauea plume, Kau district, Hawaii, USA’, Geology, 33(3), 217-220.

Longo B.M., Rossignol, A., & Green, J.B. (2008) ‘Cardiorespiratory health effects associated with sulfurous volcanic air pollution’, Public Health, 122(8), 809-820.

Longo B.M., & Yang, W. (2008) ‘Acute bronchitis and volcanic air pollution: A community-based cohort study at Kilauea Volcano, Hawai'i, USA’, Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A, 71:24, 1565-1571.

Longo, B.M., Yang, W., Green, J.B., Crosby, F.L., & Crosby, V.L. (2010) ‘Acute Health Effects Associated with Exposure to Volcanic Air Pollution (vog) from Increased Activity at Kilauea Volcano in 2008’, Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A, 73(20), 1370 - 1381.

Longo, B. M., Yang, W., Green, J. B., Longo, A. A., Harris, M. & Bibilone, R. (2010) 'An Indoor Air Quality Assessment for Vulnerable Populations Exposed to Volcanic Vog From Kilauea Volcano', Family & Community Health, 33(1), 21-31.

Mannino, D. M., Ruben, S., Holschuh, F. C., Holschuh, T. C., Wilson, M. D. & Holschuh, T. (1996) 'Emergency department visits and hospitalizations for respiratory disease on the island of Hawaii, 1981 to 1991', Hawaii Medical Journal, 55(3), 48-54.

Michaud, J. P., Grove, J. S. & Krupitsky, D. (2004) 'Emergency department visits and "vog"-related air quality in Hilo, Hawaii’, Environmental Research, 95(1), 11-19.

Michaud, J. P., Krupitsky, D., Grove, J. S. & Anderson, B. S. (2005) 'Volcano related atmospheric toxicants in Hilo and Hawaii Volcanoes National Park: Implications for human health', Neurotoxicology, 26(4), 555-563.

Sircar, K., Miike, R., Yip, F., Divinksi, T., & Tam, E. K. (2014) ‘Is Vog Exposure Associated With Airway Obstruction In Hawaii Island Schoolchildren?’, American Thoracic Society International Conference Abstracts, A104 Asthma Epidemiology.

Tam, E., Miike, R., Labrenz, S., Sutton, A.J., Elias, T., Davis, J., Chen, Y-L., Tantisira, K., Dockery, D., Avol E. (2016) 'Volcanic air pollution over the Island of Hawai'i: Emissions, dispersal, and composition. Association with respiratory symptoms and lung function in Hawai'i Island school children', Environment International, 92–93, 543-552.

Tharr, D. (1991) ‘Case Studies: Exposures to Volcanic Emissions from the Hawaiian Volcanoes: A NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluation’, Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 6(6), 408-410.

Asia

Indonesia

Le Guern, F., Tazieff, H., & Pierret, R. F. (1982) ‘An example of health hazard: people killed by gas during a phreatic eruption: Dieng Plateau (Java, Indonesia), February 20th 1979’, Bulletin Volcanologique, 45(2), 153-156.

Japan
Miyakejima island

Ishigami, A., Kikuchi, Y., Iwasawa, S., Nishiwaki, Y., Takebayashi, T., Tanaka, S. & Omae, K.

(2008) 'Volcanic sulfur dioxide and acute respiratory symptoms on Miyakejima island', Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 65(10), 701-707.

Iwasawa, S., Kikuchi, Y., Nishiwaki, Y., Nakano, M., Michikawa, T., Tsuboi, T., Tanaka, S., Uemura, T., Ishigami, A., Nakashima, H., Takebayashi, T., Adachi, M., Morikawa, A., Maruyama, K., Kudo, S., Uchiyama, I. & Omae, K. (2009) 'Effects of SO2 on Respiratory System of Adult Miyakejima Resident 2 Years after Returning to the Island', Journal of Occupational Health, 51(1), 38-47.

*Iwasawa, S., Michikawa, T., Nakano, M., Nishiwaki, Y., Tsuboi, T., Tanaka, S., Uemura, T., Milojevic, A., Nakashima, H., Takebayashi, T., Morikawa, A., Maruyama, K., Kudo, S., Uchiyama, I. & Omae, K. (2010) 'Nine-month observation of effects of SO2on the respiratory system in child Miyakejima citizens', Nippon Koshu Eisei Zasshi, 57(1), 39-43.

*Uno, H., Horiguchi, H., Omae, K., Uchiyama, I., Kudo, S. & Kayama, F. (2005) 'Effects of volcanic sulfur dioxide on reconstruction workers and residents returning to Miyake Island', Sangyo Eiseigaku Zasshi, 47(4), 142-8.

Sakurajima

Shinkura, R., Fujiyama, C. & Akiba, S. (1999) 'Relationship between ambient sulfur dioxide levels and neonatal mortality near the Mt. Sakurajima volcano in Japan', Journal of Epidemiology, 9(5), 344-349.

Uda, H., Akiba, S., Hatano, H. & Shinkura, R. (1999) 'Asthma-like disease in the children living in the neighborhood of Mt. Sakurajima', Journal of Epidemiology, 9(1), 27-31.

Wakisaka, I., Tominaga, K., Yanagihashi, T., Tomari, T. & Ando, T. (1987) 'The Distribution of atmospheric sulfur dioxide concentrations in the residential areas surrounding Mount Sakurajima, Japan', Medical Journal of Kagoshima University, 39(3), 163-172.

Wakisaka, I., Yanagihashi, T., Tomari, T. & Ando, T. (1988) 'Effects of volcanic activity on the mortality figures for respiratory diseases', Japanese Journal of Hygiene, 42(6), 1101-1110.

* Article in Japanese, English abstract.

Mt Unzen

Sasayama, H., Aoyagi, K., Tagawa, Y., Tagawa, M., Mori, K., Honda, S., & Takemoto, T. I. (2002) ‘The Effects of Volcanic Disaster on the Prevalence and Severity of Bronchial Asthma’, Acta medica Nagasakiensia, 47(1-2), 31-36.

Taiwan

Lin, C. H., Mao, I. F., Tsai, P. H., Chuang, H. Y., Chen, Y. J. & Chen, M. L. (2010) 'Sulfur-rich geothermal emissions elevate acid aerosol levels in metropolitan Taipei', Environmental Research, 110(6), 536-543.

Australasia

New Zealand

Bates, M. N., Garrett, N., Crane, J., & Balmes, J. R. (2013) ‘Associations of ambient hydrogen sulfide exposure with self-reported asthma and asthma symptoms’, Environmental research, 122, 81-87.

Bates, M. N., Garrett, N. & Shoemack, P. (2002) 'Investigation of health effects of hydrogen sulfide from a geothermal source', Arch Environ Health, 57(5), 405-11.

Durand, M., Florkowski, C., George, P., Walmsley, T., Weinstein, P. & Cole, J. (2004) 'Elevated trace element output in urine following acute volcanic gas exposure', Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 134(1-2), 139-148.

Durand, M. & Scott, B. J. (2005) 'Geothermal ground gas emissions and indoor air pollution in Rotorua, New Zealand', Science of the Total Environment, 345(1-3), 69-80.

Durand, M. & Wilson, J. G. (2006) 'Spatial analysis of respiratory disease on an urbanized geothermal field', Environmental Research, 101(2), 238-245.

Horwell, C. J., Allen, A. G., Mather, T. A. & Patterson, J. E. (2004) 'Evaluation of a simple passive sampling technique for monitoring volcanogenic hydrogen sulphide', Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 6, 630-635.

Horwell, C. J., Patterson, J. E., Gamble, J. A., & Allen, A. G. (2005) 'Monitoring and mapping of hydrogen sulphide emissions across an active geothermal field: Rotorua, New Zealand', Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 139(3-4), 259-269.

Vanuatu

Allibone, R., Cronin, S.J., Charley, D.T., Neall, V.E., Stewart, R.B., & Oppenheimer, C. (2012) ‘Dental fluorosis linked to degassing of Ambrym volcano, Vanuatu: a novel exposure pathway’, Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 34, 155-170.

Cronin, S. J. & Sharp, D. S. (2002) 'Environmental impacts on health from continuous volcanic activity at Yasur (Tanna) and Ambrym, Vanuatu', International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 12(2), 109-123.

Europe

Greece

D'Alessandro, W. (2006) 'Gas hazard: an often neglected natural risk in volcanic areas', Geo- Environment and Landscape Evolution II, 89, 369-378.

D’Alessandro, W., Brusca, L., Kyriakopoulos, K., Michas, G. and Papadakis, G. (2009) 'Hydrogen sulphide as a natural air contaminant in volcanic/geothermal areas: the case of Sousaki, Corinthia

(Greece)', Environmental Geology, 57(8), 1723-1728.

D’Alessandro W. & Kyriakopoulos K. (2013) ‘Preliminary Gas Hazard evaluation in Greece’, Natural Hazards, 69, 1987-2004.

Iceland
Eyjafjallajökull

Laursen, L. (2010) ‘Iceland eruptions fuel interest in volcanic gas monitoring’, Science, 328, 410-411.

Schmidt, A., Ostro, B., Carslaw, K. S., Wilson, M., Thordarson, T., Mann, G. W., & Simmons, A. J. (2011) ‘Excess mortality in Europe following a future Laki-style Icelandic eruption’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108(38), 15710-15715. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1108569108

Laki

Courtillot, V. (2005) ‘New evidence for massive pollution and mortality in Europe in 1783–1784 may have bearing on global change and mass extinctions’, Comptes Rendus Geoscience, 337(7), 635-637.

Durand, M., & Grattan, J. (1999) ‘Extensive respiratory health effects of volcanogenic dry fog in 1783 inferred from European documentary sources’, Environmental Geochemistry and Health 21(4), 371-376.

Durand, M., Gilbertson, D., & Pyatt, F. B. (2003) ‘Human sickness and mortality rates in relation to the distant eruption of volcanic gases: rural England and the 1783 eruption of the Laki fissure, Iceland’, In: Skinner, C.W., and Berger, A.R. (eds) Geology and Health: Closing the Gap. New York, Oxford University Press, 19-24.

*Garnier, E. (2010) ‘The Laki fog of 1783. Volcanic activity and health crises in Europe’, Bulletin de l'Academie nationale de medecine, 195(4-5), 1043-53.

Grattan, J. (1998) 'The distal impact of Icelandic volcanic gases and aerosols in Europe: a review of the 1783 Laki Fissure eruption and environmental vulnerability in the late 20th century', Geohazards in Engineering Geology, (15), 97-103.

Grattan, J. (2005) ‘Pollution and paradigms: lessons from Icelandic volcanism for continental flood basalt studies’, Lithos, 79, 343-353.

Grattan, J., Durand, M. & Taylor, S. (2003) 'Illness and elevated human mortality in Europe coincident with the Laki Fissure eruption', Volcanic Degassing, 213, 401-414.

Grattan, JP, Michnowicz, S., & Rabartin, R. (2007) ‘The Long Shadow: understanding the influence of the Laki Fissure eruption on human mortality in Europe’, In: Grattan, J.P. & Torrence, R. (eds) Under the Shadow: the cultural and environmental impacts of volcanic eruptions. San Diego, Left Coast Press, 153- 174.

Grattan, J., Rabartin, R., Self, S., & Thordarson, T. (2005) ‘Volcanic air pollution and mortality in France 1783–1784’, Comptes Rendus Geoscience, 337, 641-651.

Witham, C. S., & Oppenheimer, C. (2004) ‘Mortality in England during the 1783–4 Laki Craters eruption’, Bulletin of Volcanology, 67(1), 15-26.

Non-peer reviewed

Carlsen, H.K. (2014) ‘Health effects of air pollution in Iceland: respiratory health in volcanic environments’, Doctoral Thesis, University of Iceland, Centre of Public Health.

*Michnowicz, S.A. (2011) ‘The Laki fissure eruption and UK mortality crises of 1783-1784’, MPhil Thesis, Institute of Geography and Earth Science, Aberystwyth University, UK.

Stone, R. (2004) ‘Iceland’s Doomsday scenario?’, Science, 305(5700), 1278-1281.

Italy
Alban Hills volcanic region

Annunziatellis, A., Ciotoli, G., Lombardi, S. & Nolasco, F. (2003) 'Short- and long-term gas hazard: the release of toxic gases in the Alban Hills volcanic area (central Italy)', Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 77(2-3), 93-108.

Beaubien, S. E., Ciotoli, G. & Lombardi, S. (2003) 'Carbon dioxide and radon gas hazard in the Alban Hills area (central Italy)', Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 123(1-2), 63-80.

Carapezza, M.L., Barberi, F., Tarchini, L., Ranaldi, M. & Ricci, T. (2010) ‘Volcanic hazard of Alban Hills’, In: Funiciello, R. & Giordano, G. (eds) The Colli Albani Volcano. Special Publications of IAVCEI, 3, Geological Society, London, 279–297. ISBN-13: 978-1862393073

Carapezza, M.L., Barberi, F., Tarchini, L., Ranaldi, M., Ricci, T., Barrancos, J., Fischer, C., Lucchetti, C., Melian, G., Perez, N., Tuccimei, P., Vogel, A. & Weber, K. (2012) ‘Hazardous gas emissions from the flanks of the quiescent Colli Albani volcano (Rome, Italy)’, Applied Geochemistry, 27(9), 1767-1782.

Carapezza, M.L., Ricci, T., Barberi, F., Ranaldi, M. & Tarchini, L. (2010) ‘Hazardous gas blowouts from shallow wells in the Colli Albani volcanic complex (Rome, Italy)’, In: Birkle, P., & Torres-Alvarado, I.S, eds. Water-Rock Interaction XIII, Cleveland, OH: CRC Press, 913-916.

Mount Etna

Allen, A. G., Mather, T. A., McGonigle, A. J. S., Aiuppa, A., Delmelle, P., Davison, B., Bobrowski, N., Oppenheimer, C., Pyle, D. M. & Inguaggiato, S. (2006) 'Sources, size distribution, and downwind grounding of aerosols from Mount Etna', Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 111(D10).

Bagnato, E., Aiuppa, A., Parello, F., Calabrese, S., D’Alessandro, W., Mather, T. A., McGonigle, A. J. S., Pyle, D. M. & Wängberg, I. (2007) ' Degassing of gaseous (elemental and reactive) and particulate mercury from Mount Etna volcano (Southern Italy)', Atmospheric Environment, 41, 7377-7388.

Brogna, A., La Delfa, S., La Monaca, V., Lo Nigro, S., Morelli, D., Patane, G. & Tringali, G. (2007) 'Measurements of indoor radon concentration on the south-eastern flank of Mount Etna volcano (Southern Italy)', Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 165(1-2), 71-75.

Nicoletti, A., Bruno, E., Nania, M., Cicero, E., Messina, S., Chisari, C., Torrisi, J., Maimone, D., Marziolo, R., Lo Fermo, S., Patti, F., Giammanco, S., & Zappia, M. (2013) ‘Multiple Sclerosis in the Mount Etna Region: Possible Role of Volcanogenic Trace Elements’, PloS one, 8(12), e74259.

Vulcano Island

Carapezza, M. L., Barberi, F., Ranaldi, M., Ricci, T., Tarchini, L., Barrancos, J., Fischer, C., Perez, N., Weber, K., Di Piazza, A. & Gattuso, A. (2011) ‘Diffuse CO2 soil degassing and CO2 and H2S air concentration and related hazard at Vulcano Island (Aeolian arc, Italy)’, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 207, 130-144.

Fulignati, P., Sbrana, A., Clocchiatti, R. and Luperini, W. (2006) 'Environmental impact of the acid fumarolic plume of a passively degassing volcano (Vulcano Island, Italy)', Environmental Geology, 49(8), 1139-1155.

Klose, C. D. (2007) 'Health risk analysis of volcanic SO2 hazard on Vulcano Island (Italy)', Natural Hazards, 43(3), 303-317.

Pareschi, M. T., Ranci, M., Valenza, M. & Graziani, G. (1999) 'The assessment of volcanic gas hazard by means of numerical models: an example from Vulcano Island (Sicily)', Geophysical Research Letters, 26(10), 1405-1408.

Portugal

Amaral, A., Rodrigues, V., Oliveira, J., Pinto, C., Carneiro, V., Sanbento, R., Cunha, R. & Rodrigues, A. (2006) 'Chronic exposure to volcanic environments and cancer incidence in the Azores, Portugal', Science of the Total Environment, 367(1), 123-128.

Amaral, A. F. & Rodrigues, A. S. (2007) 'Chronic exposure to volcanic environments and chronic bronchitis incidence in the Azores, Portugal', Environmental Research, 103(3), 419-23.

Amaral, A. F. S., Arruda, M., Cabral, S. & Rodrigues, A. S. (2008) 'Essential and non-essential trace metals in scalp hair of men chronically exposed to volcanogenic metals in the Azores, Portugal', Environment International, 34(8), 1104-1108.

Baxter, P. J., Baubron, J. C. & Countinho, R. (1999) 'Health hazards and disaster potential of ground gas emissions at Furnas volcano, Sao Miguel, Azores', Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research,92(1-2), 95-106.

Camarinho, R., Garcia, P. V., & Rodrigues, A. S. (2013) ‘Chronic exposure to volcanogenic air pollution as cause of lung injury’, Environmental Pollution, 181, 24-30.

Ferreira, T., Gaspar, J. L., Viveiros, F., Marcos, M., Faria, C. & Sousa, F. (2005) 'Monitoring of fumarole discharge and CO2 soil degassing in the Azores: contribution to volcanic surveillance and public health risk assessment', Annals of Geophysics, 48(4-5), 787-796.

Viveiros, F., Cardellini, C., Ferreira, T., Caliro, S., Chiodini, G. & Silva, C. (2010) 'Soil CO2 emissions at Furnas volcano (São Miguel Island, Azores archipelago) - volcano monitoring perspectives, geomorphologic studies and land-use planning application', Journal of Geophysical Research, 115, B12208.

Viveiros, F., Ferreira, T., Silva, C. & Gaspar, J. L. (2009) 'Meteorological factors controlling soil gases and indoor CO2 concentration: A permanent risk in degassing areas', Science of the Total Environment, 407(4), 1362-1372.

Viveiros, F., Gaspar, J.L., Ferreira, T.,  Silva. C. (2016) 'Hazardous indoor CO2 concentrations in volcanic environments', Environmental Pollution, 214, 776-786.
 

Psychological impacts

Americas

Colombia

Cohen, R. E. (1987) 'The Armero tragedy: lessons for mental health professionals', Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 38(12), 1316-21.

Lima, B. R., Lozano, J. & Santacruz, H. (1988) 'Mental health assistance for disaster victims activities developed in Armero, Colombia', Boletin de la Oficina Sanitaria Panamericana, 104(6), 593-598.

Lima, B. R., Pai, S., Santacruz, H., Lozano, J., & Luna, J. (1987) ‘Screening for the psychological consequences of a major disaster in a developing country: Armero, Colombia’, Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 76(5), 561-567.

*Lima, B. R., Santacruz, H., Lozano, J., Luna, J. & Pai, S. (1988) 'Primary mental health care for the victims of the disaster in Armero, Colombia', Acta psiquiatrica y psicologica de America latina, 34(1), 13- 32.

* Article with English abstract only.

USA
Mt St Helens

Murphy, S. A. (1984) ‘After Mount St. Helens: Disaster stress research’, Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 22(7), 9-18.

Murphy, S. A. (1984) 'Stress levels and health status of victims of a natural disaster', Research in Nursing and Health, 7(3), 205-15.

Murphy, S. A. (1986) 'Status of natural disaster victims' health and recovery 1 and 3 years later', Research in Nursing and Health, 9(4), 331-40.

Shore, J. H., Tatum, E. L. &Vollmer, W. M. (1986) 'Evaluation of mental effects of disaster, Mount St. Helens eruption', American Journal of Public Health, 76(3 Suppl), 76-83.

Shore, J. H., Tatum, E. L. & Vollmer, W. M. (1986) 'Psychiatric reactions to disaster: the Mount St. Helens experience', American Journal of Psychiatry, 143(5), 590-5. http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/1986-22118-001

Hawai’i

Non-peer reviewed

Peot, J. M. (2012) ‘Relationship between Kilauea's volcanic emissions and symptoms of anxiety and depression in adult residents of Hawai'i Island’, Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.

Asia

Japan
Mt Unzen

*Araki, K. (1995) 'Mental health activities for evacuees of the volcanic eruption of Mt. Unzen-Fugen – crisis intervention of a psychiatrist', Seishin Shinkeigaku Zasshi, 97(6), 430-44.

Miyake Island

Goto, T., Wilson, J. P., Kahana, B. & Slane, S. (2002) 'PTSD, depression and help-seeking patterns following the Miyake Island volcanic eruption', International Journal of Emergency Mental Health, 4(3), 157-71.

Goto, T., Wilson, J. P., Kahana, B., & Slane, S. (2006) ‘The Miyake Island volcano disaster in Japan: Loss, uncertainty, and relocation as predictors of PTSD and depression’, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 36(8), 2001-2026.

Ohta, Y., Araki, K., Kawasaki, N., Nakane, Y., Honda, S. & Mine, M. (2003) 'Psychological distress among evacuees of a volcanic eruption in Japan: A follow-up study', Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 57(1), 105-111.

*Omori, T. (2010) ‘Mental health during recurring disaster: The case of Tsubota District residents recovering from a volcanic eruption’, Japanese Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 50(1), 60-75.

* English abstract only.

Indonesia

Tentama, F., Mulasari, S. A., Sukesi, T. W., & Haryono, W. (2014) ‘The effectiveness of trauma healing methods to reduce Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) on teenage victims of Mount Merapi eruption’, International Journal of Research Studies in Psychology, 3(4).

Warsini, S., Buettner, P., Mills, J., West, C., & Usher, K. (2014) ‘Posttraumatic stress disorder among survivors two years after the 2010 Mount Merapi volcano eruption: A survey study’, Nursing & Health Sciences.

Warsini, S., Buettner, P., Mills, J., West, C., & Usher, K. (2014) ‘The psychosocial impact of the environmental damage caused by the Mt Merapi eruption on survivors in Indonesia’, EcoHealth, April 2014, 1-11.

Warsini, S., Usher, K., Buettner, P., Mills, J., & West, C. (2014) ‘Psychosocial and environmental distress resulting from a volcanic eruption: Study protocol’, Collegian.

Non –peer reviewed

Murphy, L. (2012) ‘Cultural perspective on mental health and disaster of women affected by the 2010 Mt. Merapi eruption’, Doctoral dissertation, The Ohio State University, USA.

Philippines

Howard, W. T., Loberiza, F. R., Pfohl, B. M., Thorne, P. S., Magpantay, R. L. & Woolson, R. F. (1999) 'Initial results, reliability, and validity of a mental health survey of Mount Pinatubo disaster victims', Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 187(11), 661-672.

Huzziff, C.A. & Ronan, K.R. (1999) ‘Prediction of children’s coping following a natural disaster: the Mt Ruapehu eruptions’, Australasian Journal of Disaster and Trauma Studies, 1999-1.

Miller, M., Paton, D. & Johnston, D.M. (1999) ‘Community vulnerability to volcanic hazard consequences’, Disaster Prevention and Management, 8, 255-260.

Ronan, K.R. (1997) ‘The effects of a series of volcanic eruptions on emotional and behavioural functioning in children with asthma’, New Zealand Medical Journal, 110, 145-147.

Ronan, K. R. (1997) ‘The effects of a" benign" disaster: Symptoms of post-traumatic stress in children following a series of volcanic eruptions’, Australasian Journal of Disaster and Trauma Studies, 1.

Ronan, K. R., & Johnston, D. M. (1999) ‘Behaviourally-based interventions for children following volcanic eruptions: an evaluation of effectiveness’, Disaster prevention and management, 8(3), 169-176.

Impacts on Water quality (both gas and ash)

General/multi-volcano

Stewart, C., JohnsonN, D. M., Leonard, G. S., Horwell, C. J., Thordarson, T. & Cronin, S. J. (2006) ‘Contamination of water supplies by volcanic ashfall: A literature review and simple impact modelling’, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 158, 296-306.

Stewart, C., Pizzolon, L., Wilson, T., Leonard, G., Dewar, D., Johnston, D., & Cronin, S. (2009) ‘Can volcanic ash poison water supplies?’, Integrated environmental assessment and management, 5(4), 713-716.

Wilson, T., Stewart, C., Cole, J., Johnston, D., & Cronin, S. (2010) ‘Vulnerability of farm water supply systems to volcanic ash fall’, Environmental Earth Sciences, 61(4), 675-688.

Africa

Cameroon

Ako, A. A., Shimada, J., Hosono, T., Ichiyanagi, K., Nkeng, G. E., Fantong, W. Y., Eyong, G.E., & Roger, N. N. (2011) ‘Evaluation of groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking, domestic, and agricultural uses in the Banana Plain (Mbanga, Njombe, Penja) of the Cameroon Volcanic Line’, Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 33(6), 559-575.

Democratic Republic of Congo

Cuoco, E., Spagnuolo, A., Balagizi, C., De Francesco, S., Tassi, F., Vaselli, O., & Tedesco, D. (2013) ‘Impact of volcanic emissions on rainwater chemistry: The case of Mt. Nyiragongo in the Virunga volcanic region (DRC)’, Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 125, 69-79.

Cuoco, E., Tedesco, D., Poreda, R. J., Williams, J. C., De Francesco, S., Balagizi, C., & Darrah, T. H. (2013) ‘Impact of volcanic plume emissions on rain water chemistry during the January 2010 Nyamuragira eruptive event: Implications for essential potable water resources’, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 244, 570-581.

Ethiopia

Chernet, T., Travi, Y. & Valles, V. (2001) ‘Mechanism of degradation of the quality of natural water in the Lakes Region of the Ethiopian rift valley’, Water Res, 35, 2819-32.

Rango, T., Bianchini, G., Beccaluva, L. & Tassinari, R. (2010) ‘Geochemistry and water quality assessment of central Main Ethiopian Rift natural waters with emphasis on source and occurrence of fluoride and arsenic’, Journal of African Earth Sciences, 57, 479-491.

Nigeria

Mohammed, A. U. (2013) ‘Human Exposure to Arsenic and Other Potentially Toxic Metals in Some Waters of Biu Volcanic Province, North-Eastern Nigeria: The Effect of Leaching from Rocks Into Surrounding Waters’, Anchor Academic Publishing. ISBN-13: 978-3954891764.

Americas

Argentina

Farnfield, H. R., Marcilla, A. L., & Ward, N. I. (2012) ‘Arsenic speciation and trace element analysis of the volcanic río Agrio and the geothermal waters of Copahue, Argentina’, Science of the Total Environment, 433, 371-378.

Perez-Carrera, A. & Fernandez-Cirelli, A. (2005) ‘Arsenic concentration in water and bovine milk in Cordoba, Argentina. Preliminary results’, J Dairy Res, 72, 122-4.

Mexico

Martin-Del Pozzo, A. L., Aceves, F., Espinasa, R., Aguayo, A., Inguaggiato, S., Morales, P., & Cienfuegos, E. (2002) ‘Influence of volcanic activity on spring water chemistry at Popocatepetl Volcano, Mexico’, Chemical Geology, 190(1), 207-229.

Asia

Indonesia

Lohr, A. J., Bogaard, T. A., Heikens, A., Hendriks, M. R., Sumarti, S., Van Bergen, M. J., Van Gestel, C. A. M., Van Straalen, N. M., Vroon, P. Z. & Widianarko, B. (2005) ‘Natural pollution caused by the extremely acidic crater Lake Kawah Ijen, East Java, Indonesia’, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 12, 89-95.

Australasia

New Zealand

Cronin, S.J., Stewart, C., Zernack, A., Brenna, M., Procter, J.N., Pardo, N.m Christenson, B., Wilson, T.M., Stewart, R.B. and Irwin, M. (2014) Volcanic ash leachate compositions and assessment of health and agricultural hazards from 2012 hydrothermal eruptions, Tongariro, New Zealand. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research (accepted, in press)

Robinson, B., Duwig, C., Bolan, N., Kannathasan, M. & Saravanan, A. (2003) ‘Uptake of arsenic by New Zealand watercress (Lepidium sativum)’, Science of the Total Environment, 301, 67-73.

Robinson, B., Kim, N., Marchetti, M., Moni, C., Schroeter, L., Van Den Dijssel, C., Milne, G. & Clothier, B. (2006) ‘Arsenic hyperaccumulation by aquatic macrophytes in the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand’. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 58, 206-215.

Robinson, B. H., Brooks, R. R., Outred, H. A. & Kirkman, J. H. (1995) ‘Mercury and Arsenic in Trout from the Taupo Volcanic Zone and Waikato River, North-Island, New-Zealand’, Chemical Speciation and Bioavailability, 7, 27-32.

Stewart, C., Johnson, D. M., Leonard, G. S., Horwell, C. J., Thordarson, T. & Cronin, S. J. (2006) ‘Contamination of water supplies by volcanic ashfall: A literature review and simple impact modelling’, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 158, 296-306.

Wilson, T., Stewart, C., Cole, J., Johnston, D., & Cronin, S. (2010) ‘Vulnerability of farm water supply systems to volcanic ash fall’, Environmental Earth Sciences, 61(4), 675-688.

Vanuatu

Cronin, S., Douglas, C., & Alloway, B. (2002) ‘Drinking water supplies on Ambrym–Effects of volcanic gas’, Unpublished report to Office of the WHO Representative in Vanuatu, and NZODA, Wellington, New Zealand.

Cronin, S. J., & Sharp, D. S. (2002) ‘Environmental impacts on health from continuous volcanic activity at Yasur (Tanna) and Ambrym, Vanuatu’, International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 12(2), 109-123.

Europe

Italy

Achene, L., Ferretti, E., Lucentini, L., Pettine, P., Veschetti, E., & Ottaviani, M. (2010) ‘Arsenic content in drinking-water supplies of an important volcanic aquifer in central Italy’, Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry, 92(3), 509-520.

Angelone, M., Cremisini, C., Piscopo, V., Proposito, M. & Spaziani, F. (2009) ‘Influence of hydrostratigraphy and structural setting on the arsenic occurrence in groundwater of the Cimino-Vico volcanic area (central Italy)’, Hydrogeology Journal, 17, 901-914.

D’Alessandro, W., Bellomo, S., Bonfanti, P., Brusca, L., & Longo, M. (2011) ‘Salinity variations in the water resources fed by the Etnean volcanic aquifers (Sicily, Italy): natural vs. anthropogenic causes’, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 173(1-4), 431-446.

Daniele, L. (2004) ‘Distribution of arsenic and other minor trace elements in the groundwater of Ischia Island (southern Italy)’, Environmental Geology, 46, 96-103.

Fulignati, P., Sbrana, A., Clocchiatti, R. & Luperini, W. (2006) ‘Environmental impact of the acid fumarolic plume of a passively degassing volcano (Vulcano Island, Italy)’, Environmental Geology, 49, 1139-1155.

Giammanco, S., Ottaviani, M., Valenza, M., Veschetti, E., Principio, E., Giammanco, G. & Pignato, S. (1998) ‘Major and trace elements geochemistry in the ground waters of a volcanic area: Mount Etna (Sicily, Italy)’, Water Research, 32, 19-30.

Giammanco, S., Valenza, M., Pignato, S. & Giammanco, G. (1996) ‘Mg, Mn, Fe, and V concentrations in the ground waters of Mount Etna (Sicily)’, Water Research, 30, 378-386.

Lima, A., Cicchella, D. & Di Francia, S. (2003) ‘Natural contribution of harmful elements in thermal groundwaters of Ischia Island (southern Italy)’, Environmental Geology, 43, 930-940.

Madonia, P., Cangemi, M., Bellomo, S., & D’Alessandro, W. (2013) ‘Influence of volcanic activity on the quality of water collected in roof water catchment systems at Stromboli Island (Italy)’, Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 131, 28-36.

Madonia, P., & Liotta, M. (2010) ‘Chemical composition of precipitation at Mt. Vesuvius and Vulcano Island, Italy: volcanological and environmental implications’, Environmental Earth Sciences, 61(1), 159- 171.

Russia

Melekestsev, I. V., Kartasheva, E. V., Kirsanova, T. P., & Kuz’mina, A. A. (2011) ‘Water contaminated by fresh tephra as a natural hazard factor: The 2008–2009 eruption of Koryakskii Volcano, Kamchatka’, Journal of Volcanology and Seismology, 5(1), 17-30.

Fluoride

Reviews

Cronin, S. J., Manoharan, V., Hedley, M. J. & Longanathan, P. L. (2000) ‘Fluoride: A review of its fate, bioavailability, and risks of fluorosis in grazed-pasture systems in New Zealand’, New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 43, 295-321.

D'Alessandro, W. (2006) ‘Human fluorosis related to volcanic activity: a review’, Environmental Toxicology, 10, 21-30

Ozsvath, D. L. (2009) ‘Fluoride and environmental health: a review’, Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology, 8(1), 59-79.

Africa

Ethiopia

Ayenew, T. (2008) ‘The distribution and hydrogeological controls of fluoride in the groundwater of central Ethiopian rift and adjacent highlands’, Environmental Geology, 54, 1313-1324.

Olsson, B. (1979) ‘Dental findings in highfluoride areas in Ethiopia’, Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 7(1), 51-56.

Rango, T., Bianchini, G., Beccaluva, L., Ayenew, T. & Colombani, N. (2009) ‘Hydrogeochemical study in the Main Ethiopian Rift: new insights to the source and enrichment mechanism of fluoride’, Environmental Geology, 58, 109-118.

Non-peer reviewed

Johansen, E. S. (2014) ‘The effects of fluoride on human health in Eastern Rift Valley, northern Tanzania’, Master’s Thesis, University of Oslo, Norway.

Americas

Argentina

Flueck, W. T. (2013) ‘Effects of fluoride intoxication on teeth of livestock due to a recent volcanic eruption in Patagonia, Argentina’, Online Journal of Vetinary Research, 17(4), 167-176.

Flueck, W. T. (2014) ‘Continuing impacts on red deer from a volcanic eruption in 2011’, European Journal of Wildlife Research, 1-4.

Flueck, W. T., & Smith-Flueck, J. A. M. (2013) ‘Severe dental fluorosis in juvenile deer linked to a recent volcanic eruption in Patagonia’, Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 49(2), 355-366.

Flueck, W. T., & Smith-Flueck, J. A. M. (2013) ‘Temporal kinetics of fluoride accumulation: from fetal to adult deer’, European Journal of Wildlife Research, 59(6), 899-903.

Chile

Rubin, C. H., Noji, E. K., Seligman, P. J., Holtz, J. L., Grande, J., & Vittani, F. (1994) ‘Evaluating a fluorosis hazard after a volcanic eruption’, Archives of Environmental Health: An International Journal, 49(5), 395-401.

Mexico

Armienta, M. A., Cruz-Reyna, S., Cruz, O., Ceniceros, N., Aguayo, A., & Marin, M. (2011) ‘Fluoride in ash leachates: environmental implications at Popocatépetl volcano, central Mexico’, Natural Hazards and Earth System Science, 11(7), 1949-1956.

Asia

Indonesia

Heikens, A., Sumarti, S., Van Bergen, M., Widianarko, B., Fokkert, L., Van Leeuwen, K. & Seinen, W. (2005) ‘The impact of the hyperacid Ijen Crater Lake: risks of excess fluoride to human health’, Science of the Total Environment, 346, 56-69.

Australasia

New Zealand

Coote, G. E., Cutress, T. W., & Suckling, G. W. (1997) ‘Uptake of fluoride into developing teeth of sheep, following the 1995 volcanic eruption of Mt Ruapehu, New Zealand’, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 130(1–4), 571–575.

Vanuatu

Weets, J. D. (1996) The dental anthropology of Vanuatu, Eastern Melanesia. Thesis, Arizona State University, Arizona.

Europe

Italy

Petrone, P., Guarino, F. M., Giustino, S., & Gombos, F. (2013) ‘Ancient and recent evidence of endemic fluorosis in the Naples area’, Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 131, 14-27.

Mt Etna

Bellomo, S., Aiuppa, A., D’Alessandro, W. & Parello, F. (2007) ‘Environmental impact of magmatic fluorine emission in the Mt. Etna area’, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 165, 87-101.

Bellomo, S., D’Alessandro, W. & Longo, M. (2003) ‘Volcanogenic fluorine in rainwater around active degassing volcanoes: Mt. Etna and Stromboli island, Italy’, Science of the Total Environment, 301, 175- 185.

Mt Vesuvius

Petrone, P., Giordano, M., Giustino, S., & Guarino, F. M. (2011) ‘Enduring fluoride health hazard for the Vesuvius Area population: the case of AD 79 Herculaneum’, PloS one, 6(6), e21085.

Portugal

Cordeiro, S., Coutinho, R., & Cruz, J. V. (2012) ‘Fluoride content in drinking water supply in São Miguel volcanic island (Azores, Portugal)’, Science of the Total Environment, 432, 23-36.

Notcutt, G., & Davies, F. (1999) ‘Biomonitoring of volcanogenic fluoride, Furnas Caldera, Sao Miguel, Azores’, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 92(1-2), 209-214.

Volcanic soils

Benke, R. R., Hooper, D. M., Durham, J. S., Bannon, D. R., Compton, K. L., Necsoiu, M. & McGinnis, R. N., JR. (2009) ‘Measurement of airborne particle concentrations near the Sunset Crater volcano, Arizona’, Health Phys, 96, 97-117.

Cicchella, D., De Vivo, B. & Lima, A. (2005) ‘Background and baseline concentration values of elements harmful to human health in the volcanic soils of the metropolitan and provincial areas of Napoli (Italy)’, Geochemistry-Exploration Environment Analysis, 5, 29-40.

Davies, T. C. (2008) ‘Environmental health impacts of east African Rift volcanism’, Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 30, 325-338.

Floor, G.H., Calabrese, S., Roman-Ross, G., D’Alessandro, W., & Aiuppa, A. (2011) ‘Selenium mobilization in soils due to volcanic derived acid rain: An example from Mt Etna volcano, Sicily’, Chemical Geology, 289, 235-244.

Onal, M., Kahraman, S. & Sarikaya, Y. (2007) ‘Differentiation of alpha-cristobalite from opals in bentonites from Turkey’, Applied Clay Science, 35, 25-30.

Pacua, C., Charnock, J., Polya, D. A., Sato, T., Yokoyama, S. & Minato, M. (2005) ‘Arsenic-bearing smectite from the geothermal environment’, Mineralogical Magazine, 69, 897-906.

Pelser, C., Dazzi, C., Graubard, B. I., Lauria, C., Vitale, F. & Goedert, J. J. (2009) ‘Risk of classic Kaposi sarcoma with residential exposure to volcanic and related soils in Sicily’, Ann Epidemiol, 19, 597-601.

Sempertegui, F., Estrella, B., Vallejo, W., Tapia, L., Herrera, D., Moscoso, F., Ceron, G., Griffiths, J. K. & Hamer, D. H. (2003) ‘Selenium serum concentrations in malnourished Ecuadorian children: A case- control study’, International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research, 73, 181-186.

Fibrous volcanogenic deposits

Andreozzi, G. B., Ballirano, P., Gianfagna, A., Mazziotti-Tagliani, S. & Pacella, A. (2009) ‘Structural and spectroscopic characterization of a suite of fibrous amphiboles with high environmental and health relevance from Biancavilla (Sicily, Italy)’, American Mineralogist, 94, 1333-1340.

Biggeri, A., Pasetto, R., Belli, S., Bruno, C., Di Maria, G., Mastrantonio, M., Trinca, S., Uccelli, R. & Comba, P. (2004) ‘Mortality from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pleural mesothelioma in an area contaminated by natural fiber (fluoro-edenite)’, Scand J Work Environ Health, 30, 249-52.

Bruno, C., Comba, P. & Zona, A. (2006) ‘Adverse health effects of fluoro-edenitic fibers - Epidemiological evidence and public health priorities, Living in a Chemical World: Framing the Future in Light of the Past, 1076, 778-783.

Cernigliaro, A., Fano, V., Addario, S. P., Caruso, S., Pennisi, P., Forastiere, F., Perucci, C. A., Comba, P. & Scondotto, S. (2006) ‘Mortality and hospital discharges in the population of Biancavilla (Sicily) contaminated by natural fibres’, Epidemiol Prev, 30, 227-31.

Emri, S., Demir, A., Dogan, M., Akay, H., Bozkurt, B., Carbone, M. & Baris, I. (2002) ‘Lung diseases due to environmental exposures to erionite and asbestos in Turkey’, Toxicol Lett, 127, 251-7.

Gianfagna, A., Andreozzi, G. B., Ballirano, P. & Mazziotti-Tagliani, S. (2007) ‘Structural and chemical contrasts between prismatic and fibrous fluoro-edenite from Biancavilla, Sicily, Italy’, Canadian Mineralogist, 45, 249-262.

Kadir, S., Onen-Hall, A. P., Aydin, S. N., Yakicier, C., Akarsu, N. & Tuncer, M. (2008) ‘Environmental effect and genetic influence: a regional cancer predisposition survey in the Zonguldak region of Northwest Turkey’, Environmental Geology, 54, 391-409.

Manna, P. & Comba, P. (2001) ’Communicating with health authorities and the public about asbestos risk in Biancavilla (CT)’, Epidemiol Prev, 25, 28-30.

Mercurio, M., Langella, A., Cappelletti, P., de Gennaro, B., Monetti, V., & de Gennaro, M. (2012) ‘May the use of Italian volcanic zeolite-rich tuffs as additives in animal diet represent a risk for the human health?’, Periodico di Mineralogia, 81, 393- 407.

Temel, A. & Gundogdu, M. N. (1996) ‘Zeolite occurrences and the erionite-mesothelioma relationship in Cappadocia, central anatolia, Turkey’, Mineralium Deposita, 31, 539-547.

Podoconiosis

Fuller, L. C. (2005) ‘Podoconiosis: endemic nonfilarial elephantiasis’, Curr Opin Infect Dis, 18, 119-22.

Tekola, F., Mariam, D. H. & Davey, G. (2006) ‘Economic costs of endemic non-filarial elephantiasis in Wolaita Zone, Ethiopia’, Tropical Medicine & International Health, 11, 1136-1144.

Wanji, S., Tendongfor, N., Esum, M., Che, J. N., Mand, S., Tanga Mbi, C., Enyong, P. & Hoerauf, A. (2008) ‘Elephantiasis of non-filarial origin (podoconiosis) in the highlands of north-western Cameroon’, Ann Trop Med Parasitol, 102, 529-40.

Molla, Yordanos B, Le Blond, Jennifer S, Wardrop, Nicola, Baxter, Peter, Atkinson, Peter M, Newport, Melanie J and Davey, Gail (2013) Individual correlates of podoconiosis in areas of varying endemicity: a case-control study. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 7 (12). e2554. ISSN 1935-2735

Molla, Yordanos B, Wardrop, Nicola A, Le Blond, Jennifer S, Baxter, Peter, Newport, Melanie J, Atkinson, Peter M and Davey, Gail Modelling environmental factors correlated with podoconiosis. International Journal of Health Geographics. ISSN 1476-072X (In Press)

Deribe, Kebede, Brooker, Simon J, Pullan, Rachel L, Hailu, Asrat, Enquselassie, Fikre, Reithinger, Richard, Newport, Melanie and Davey, Gail (2013) Spatial distribution of podoconiosis in relation to environmental factors in Ethiopia: a historical review. PLoS ONE, 8 (7). e68330. ISSN 1932-6203

EndFAQ

 
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PAMPHLETS

Download our pamphlets on preparing for ashfall and on the health hazards of ash. They are designed for mass distribution at the onset of new eruptions. They are now avaiable in English, Japanese, French Spanish, Portuguese, Swahili, Indonesian and Icelandic with Italian versions being available shortly. Please see our Pamphlets page for further infomation.

 

  

 

FACE MASK USE

IVHHN has an article under the Guidelines tab which used to be called 'Recommended Face Masks'. This has now been updated to 'Information on face masks' and is an interim page whilst the Health Interventions in Volcanic Eruptions project investigates which types of respiratory protection are effective in protecting the general population from volcanic ash inhalation. Please note that the translations in Spanish, Japanese and Portuguese have not yet been updated.

 

 

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