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Trevisanato, S. I. (2006) 'Six medical papyri describe the effects of Santorini's volcanic ash, and provide Egyptian parallels to the so-called biblical plagues', Medical Hypotheses, 67(1), 187-190.



Carlsen, H.K., Gislason, T., Benediktsdottir, B., Kolbeinsson, T.B., Hauksdottir, A., Thorsteinsson, T., & Briem, H. (2012) ‘A survey of early health effects of the Eyjafjallajökull 2010 eruption in Iceland: a population-based study’, BMJ Open, 2(2).

Carlsen, H.K., Hauksdottir, A., Valdimarsdottir, U.A., Gíslason, T., Einarsdottir, G., Runolfsson, H., Briem, H., Finnbjornsdottir, R.G., Gudmundsson, S., Kolbeinsson, T.B., Thorsteinsson, T., & Pétursdóttir, G. (2012) ‘Health effects following the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption: a cohort study’, BMJ Open, 2(6).

Collette, A., Favez, O., Meleux, F., Chiappini, L., Haeffelin, M., Morille, Y., Malherbe, L., Papin, A, Bessagnet, B., Menut, L., Leoz, E., & Rouïlle, L. (2010) ‘Assessing in near real time the impact of the April 2010 Eyjafjallajökull ash plume on air quality’, Atmospheric Environment, 45(5), 1217-1221.

Elliot, A. J., Singh, N., Loveridge, P., Harcourt, S., Smith, S., Pnaiser, R., Kavanagh, K., Robertson, C., Ramsay, C. N., McMenamin, J., Kibble, A., Murray, V., Ibbotson, S., Catchpole, M., McCloskey, B. and Smith, G. E. (2010) ‘Syndromic surveillance to assess the potential public health impact of the Icelandic volcanic ash plume across the United Kingdom, April 2010’, Eurosurveillance, 15(23), 6-9.

Gislason, S. R., Hassenkam, T., Nedel, S., Bovet, N., Eiriksdottir, E. S., Alfredsson, H. A., Hem, C. P., Balogh, Z. I., Dideriksen, K., Oskarsson, N., Sigfusson, B., Larsen, G. and Stipp, S. L. S. (2011) ‘Characterization of Eyjafjallajokull volcanic ash particles and a protocol for rapid risk assessment’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108(18), 7307-7312.

Gudmundsson, G. (2011) ‘Respiratory health effects of volcanic ash with special reference to Iceland. A review’, Clinical Respiratory Journal, 5(1), 2-9.

Gudmundsson, G., Powers, L. S., Reisetter, A., Baltrusaitis, J., Grassian, V., Monick, M. M., & Hansdottir, S. (2011) ‘Ash From The Icelandic Eyjafjallajokull Volcano Inhibits Autophagy And Increases Stress Responses In Alveolar Macrophages’, American Thoracic Society International Conference Abstracts, 183, A1428.

Horwell, C. J., Baxter, P. J., Hillman, S. E., Calkins, J. A., Damby, D. E., Delmelle, P., Donaldson, K., Dunster, C., Kelly, F.J., Le Bond, J.S., Livi, K.J., Murphy, F., Nattrass, C., Sweeney, S., Tetley, T.D., Thordarson, T., & Tomatis, M. (2013) ‘Physicochemical and toxicological profiling of ash from the 2010 and 2011 eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull and Grímsvötn volcanoes, Iceland using a rapid respiratory hazard assessment protocol’, Environmental Research, 127, 63-73.

Lähde, A., Gudmundsdottir, S.S., Joutsensaari, J., Tapper, U., Ruusunen, J., Ihalainen, M., Karhunen, T., Torvela, T., Jokiniemi, J., Järvinen, K., Gíslason, S.R., Briem, H., & Gizurarson, S. (2013) ‘In vitro evaluation of pulmonary deposition of airborne volcanic ash’, Atmospheric Environment, 70, 18-27.

Monick, M. M., Baltrusaitis, J., Powers, L. S., Borcherding, J. A., Caraballo, J. C., Mudunkotuwa, I., Peate, D.W., Walters, K., Gudmundsson, G., & Comellas, A. P. (2013) ‘Effects of Eyjafjallajökull volcanic ash on innate immune system responses and bacterial growth in vitro’, Environmental Health Perspectives, 121(6), 691-698.

Oudin, A., Carlsen, H. K., Forsberg, B., & Johansson, C. (2013) ‘Volcanic Ash and Daily Mortality in Sweden after the Icelandic Volcano Eruption of May 2011’, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 10(12), 6909-6919.

Schäfer, K., Thomas, W., Peters, A., Ries, L., Obleitner, F., Schnelle-Kreis, J., Birmili, W., Diemer, J., Fricke, W., Junkermann, W., Pitz, M., Emeis, S., Forkel, R., Suppan, P., Flentje, H., Wichmann, H.E., Gilge, S., Meinhardt, F., Zimmermann, R., Weinhold, K., Soentgen, J., Münkel, C., Freuer, C., & Cyrys, J. (2011) ‘Influences of the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull volcanic plume on air quality in the northern Alpine region’, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, 11(3), 9083-9132.

Thorsteinsson, T., Jóhannsson, T., Stohl, A., & Kristiansen, N. I. (2012) ‘High levels of particulate matter in Iceland due to direct ash emissions by the Eyjafjallajökull eruption and resuspension of deposited ash’, Journal of Geophysical Research, 117(B1).

Wilkie, M. E. M., Anderson, M., & Schembri, S. (2010) ‘P120 Observational study of acute admissions with non-infective asthma and COPD to Perth Royal Infirmary following the eruption of Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajokull and subsequent ash cloud formation’, Thorax, 65(4), A128-A129.


Mt Etna

Alparone, S., Andronico, D., Sgroi, T., Ferrari, F., Lodato, L., & Reitano, D. (2007) ‘Alert system to mitigate tephra fallout hazards at Mt. Etna Volcano, Italy’, Natural Hazards, 43, 333–350.

Barsotti, S., Andronico, D., Neri, A., Del Carlo, P., Baxter, P. J., Aspinall, W. P. & Hincks, T. (2010) ‘Quantitative assessment of volcanic ash hazards for health and infrastructure at Mt. Etna (Italy) by numerical simulation’, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 192(1-2), 85-96.

Censi, P., Tamburo, E., Speziale, S., Zuddas, P., Randazzo, L. A., Punturo, R., Cuttitta, A., & Aricò, P. (2011) ‘Yttrium and lanthanides in human lung fluids, probing the exposure to atmospheric fallout’, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 186(2), 1103-1110.

Censi, P., Zuddas, P., Randazzo, L. A., Tamburo, E., Speziale, S., Cuttitta, A., Punturo, R., Arico, P., & Santagata, R. (2011) ‘Source and nature of inhaled atmospheric dust from trace element analyses of human bronchial fluids’, Environmental Science & Technology, 45(15), 6262-6267.

Diana, B., Finocchiaro, A. M., La Delfa, S., Patane, G., Presti, F., Timpanaro, M. & Tringali, G. (2006) ‘Aerobiological monitoring applications in the Etnean volcanic plume evaluation (Mt. Etna, Sicily) and correlation with allergopathies’, Aerobiologia, 22(4), 285-293.

*Fano, V., Cernigliaro, A., Scondotto, S., Cuccia, M., Forastiere, F., Nicolosi, A., Oliveri, C., Scillieri, R., Distefano, P. and Perucci, C. A. (2005) 'Health effects of environmental contamination due to volcanic ash of Mount Etna in autumn 2002', Epidemiologia e Prevenzione, 29(3-4), 180-7.

Fano, V., Cernigliaro, A., Scondotto, S., Perucci, C. A., & Forastiere, F. (2010) ‘The fear of volcano: short-term health effects after Mount Etna's eruption in 2002’, European Respiratory Journal, 36(5), 1216-1218.

Lombardo, D., Ciancio, N., Campisi, R., Di Maria, A., Bivona, L., Poletti, V., Mistretta, A., Biggeri, A., & Di Maria, G. (2013) ‘A retrospective study on acute health effects due to volcanic ash exposure during the eruption of Mount Etna (Sicily) in 2002’, Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine, 8, 51.

Martin, R. S., Mather, T. A., Pyle, D. M., Power, M., Allen, A. G., Aiuppa, A., Horwell, C. J. & Ward, E.P.W. (2008) 'Chemical and morphological characterisation of volcanic aerosols and nanoparticles from Mt Etna', Journal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres, 113, D17, Art. No. D17211.

Patania, F., Gagliano, A., Nocera, F. & Sciuto, G. (2003) ‘Adverse effects on peoples' health as a result of the Etna volcano eruption: Singling out and precautionary controls’, Air Pollution XI: Advances in Air Pollution Series, 13, 373-385.

Mt Vesuvius

Horwell, C. J., Stannett, G. W., Andronico, D., Bertagnini, A., Fenoglio, I., Fubini, B., Le Blond, J. S., & Williamson, B. J. (2010) ‘A physico-chemical assessment of the health hazard of Mt. Vesuvius volcanic ash’, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 191(3-4), 222-232.

Poli, U., Ippoliti, M. & Marino, A. (1997) 'Application of remote sensing and GIS to emergency planning and decision making support related to volcanic hazard: Vesuvio's eruption', Remote Sensing '96, 313- 317.

*Article in Italian

Non-peer reviewed

Hodgkins, S. (2013) ‘Geochemical interactions between volatiles and volcanic ash, Mount Etna Italy’, MESci Dissertation, School of Earth and Oceanic Sciences, Cardiff University, Wales, U.K.

Coward, E. (2013) ‘Establishing the fractionation of fine ash particles from Mt. Vesuvius (Naples): Levels of toxicity and potential resulting effect on the health of the human respiratory system’, MESci Dissertation, School of Earth and Oceanic Sciences, Cardiff University, Wales, U.K.