????????

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??????????????Witham et al. (2005) ????????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????? PDF????????????????
Witham et al. (2005)???????

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??????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????? ??pH????????????????????????????? ????Al?F????????


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????????????? ????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????? 2004????27??????????????????????55??????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????? ????????????????(ml/g)????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????? ?????Budnikov, 1990; Deger, 1931 and 1932; Hinkley and Smith, 1982; Kirsanov and Yu Ozerov, 1984; Rose, 1977; Rose et al., 1978 and 1982; Rubin et al., 1994; Stoiber et al., 1980 and 1981????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????? ?????????????? IVHHN??????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????


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  1. ?????????????????????;
  2. ????????(???????????????????????????);
  3. ????????????;
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????????????????? ?????????55???????????????? ???????????????????Cl?Ca?Na?SO42-?Mg????F??? ?????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????? Al?As?Cl?F?Fe?Hg?Pb ??? SO42-??????? (? 1)? Fe??????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????? ??????pH?????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????

??????????????????????????????? ??????????????? ???????????????????????

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???????????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????

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??? ??? ????
(mg ion/kg ????)
???????? (mg/l) WHO ???????????? (mg/l)
Al 16 2.4 (?????) - 2117 (????) 0.096 - 84.68 -
As 8 0.01 (???????) - <4 (????) 0.0004 - 0.16 0.01
Cl 42 3.8 (????????) - 11160 (???) 0.152 - 446.4 250a
F 30 0.1 (?????) - 2043 (????) 0.004 - 81.72 1.5
Fe 22 0.01 (????????) - 91 (????) 0.0004 - 3.64 -
Hg 3 0.0001-0.0087 (??????????) 4 x 10-6 - 3.48 x 10-4 0.001
Pb 12 0.001 - 17.56 (???????????????????) 4 x 10-5 - 0.7024 0.01
SO4 33 2.4 (????????)-21775 (???????) 0.096 - 871 500b
  • ????????????????????????????????-?????1:25???????????? ???????????????????????(WHO, 1993)?????????????????? ??????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????
  1. no guideline value, but concentrations of this level can give rise to a detectable taste in water.
  2. no guideline value, but gastrointestinal effects can result from ingestion of high levels.


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??????????????????? ??????????????????????? ????????????????????????? (??????????????????????)

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  • ???(g)??(ml)???????1:25???;
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  • ??????????????????????????0.45???????????????? (??????????????????Millipore and Whatman???????)? ???????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????;
  • ???????????????????????????????????????ICP????????? ???????????????????????;
  • ????????????????????????????????????? (1-2 g??????????????????????????????????????????????????????);
  • ???????????????????????????????????;
  • ??? mg/kg???????????????????????????????????????

??????????????????????????????????????????

????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????? ????????????????0.1??0.0001M (pH 1 ?4)????? ???????(HNO3)?????(HCl)?????????? ????Cl-???????????????????0.001M(pH 3)???????????????? ???????????????????????pH?????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????

??????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????

??????????????????????????????????????????? Taylor and Stoiber (1973)???????????????????? ????????????90????????????????????????(Frogner et al., 2001; Oskarsson, 1980; Risacher and Alonso, 2001)????????????? ?????????????????????60???100?????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????

???????????????????mg ???/kg ????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????(mg L-1)??????????????????????


????

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Armienta, M.A., Martin - Del Pozzo, A.L., Espinasa, R., Cruz, O., Ceniceros, N., Aguayo, A. and Butron, M.A., 1998. Geochemistry of ash leachates during the 1994-1996 activity of Popocatepetl. Applied Geochemistry, 13(7): 841-850.

Bornemisza, E. and Morales, J.C., 1969. Soil chemical characteristics of recent volcanic ash. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings, 33(4): 528-530.

Budnikov, V.A., 1990. Eruption of Gorelyi volcano in April 1986. Volcanology and Seismology, 10(4): 650-658. Cimino, G. and Toscano, G., 1998. Dissolution of trace metals from lava ash: influence on the composition of rainwater in the Mount Etna volcanic area. Environmental Pollution, 99: 389-393.

Cronin, S.J., Hedley, M.J., Neall, V.E. and Smith, R.G., 1998. Agronomic impact of tephra fallout from the 1995 and 1996 Ruapehu Volcano eruptions, New Zealand. Environmental Geology, 34(1): 21-30.

Cronin, S.J., Hedley, M.J., Smith, R.G. and Neall, V.E., 1997. Impact of Ruapehu ash fall on soil and pasture nutrient status 1. October 1995 eruptions. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 40: 383-395.

Cronin, S.J., Neall, V.E., Lecointre, J.A., Hedley, M.J. and Loganathan, P., 2003. Environmental hazards of fluoride in volcanic ash: a case study from Ruapehu volcano, New Zealand. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 121(3-4): 271-291.

Cronin, S.J. and Sharp, D.S., 2002. Environmental impacts on health from continuous volcanic activity at Yasur (Tanna) and Ambrym, Vanuatu. International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 12: 109-123.

de Hoog, J.C.M., Koetsier, G.W., Bronto, S., Sriwana, T. and van Bergen, M.J., 2001. Sulfur and chlorine degassing from primitive arc magmas: temporal changes during the 1982-1983 eruptions of Galunggung (West Java, Indonesia). Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 108: 55-83.

Dahlgren, R.A., Ugolini, F.C. and Casey, W.H., 1999. Field weathering rates of Mt. St. Helens tephra. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 63(5): 587-598.

Deger, E., 1931. Chemische Untersuchung der bei den Ausbruchen des Vulkans Santa-Maria, Guatemala, im Jahre 1929 niedergegangenen Auswurfsmaterialien. Chemie Der Erde, 6(3): 376-380.

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Dethier, D.P., Pevear, D.R. and Frank, D., 1981. Alteration of new volcanic deposits. In: P.W. Lipman and D.R. Mullineaux (Editors), The 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helens, Washington. USGS Professional Paper, pp. 649-665.

Edmonds, M., Oppenheimer, C., Pyle, D.M. and Herd, R.A., 2003. Rainwater and ash leachate analysis as proxies for plume chemistry at Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat. In: C. Oppenheimer, D.M. Pyle and J. Barclay (Editors), Volcanic Degassing. Geological Society, London.

Frogner, P., Gislason, S.R. and Oskarsson, N., 2001. Fertilizing potential of volcanic ash in ocean surface water. Geology, 29(6): 487-490.

Fruchter, J.S., Robertson, D.E., Evans, J.C., Olsen, K.B., Lepel, E.A., Laul, J.C., Abel, K.H., Sanders, R.W., Jackson, P.O., Wogman, N.S., Perkins, R.W., Van Tuyl, H.H., Beauchamp, R.H., Shade, J.W., Daniel, J.L., Erikson, R.L., Sehmel, G.A., Lee, R.N., Robinson, A.V., Moss, O.R., Briant, J.K. and Cannon, W.C., 1980. Mount St. Helens ash from the 18 May 1980 eruption: chemical, physical, mineralogical, and biological properties. Science, 209(4461): 1116-1125.

Giggenbach, W.F., 1989. Lonquimay, Scientific Event Alert Network (SEAN) Bulletin, v. 14. no. 7, Smithsonian Institution.

Gough, L.P., Severson, R.C., Lichte, F.E., Peard, J.L., Tuttle, M.L., Papp, C.S.E., Harms, T.F. and Smith, K.S., 1981. Ash-fall effects on the chemistry fo wheat and the Ritzville soil series, eastern Washington. In: P.W. Lipman and D.R. Mullineaux (Editors), The 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helens, Washington. USGS Professional Paper, pp. 761-782.

Hinkley, T., Lichte, F.E., Taylor, H.E. and Smith, K.S., 1980. Conmposition of ash and its leachates from Mount St. Helens. Abstracts with Programs - Geological Society of America, 12(7): 447.

Hinkley, T. and Smith, K.S., 1982. Leachate chemistry of the tephra from the May 18 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens. EOS, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 63(45): 1143.

Horwell, C.J., Fenoglio, I., Ragnarsdottir, K.V., Sparks, R.S.J. and Fubini, B., 2003. Surface reactivity of volcanic ash from the eruption of Soufriére Hills volcano, Montserrat, West Indies with implications for health hazards. Environmental Research: 93: 202-215.

Ivanov, B.V., Flerov, G.B., Masurenkov, Y.P., Kiriyanov, V.Y., Melekestsev, I.V., Taran, Y.A. and Ovsyannikov, A.A., 1996. The 1991 eruption of Avacha Volcano: dynamics and composition of eruptive products. Volcanology and Seismology, 17(4-5): 369-394.

Kawaratani, R.K. and Fujita, S.-I., 1990. Wet deposition of volcanic gases and ash in the vicinity of Mount Sakurajima. Atmospheric Environment, 24A(6): 1487-1492.

Kirsanov, I.T. and Yu Ozerov, A., 1984. Composition of products and energy yield of the 1980-1981 Gorelyi Volcano eruption. Volcanology and Seismology, 5(1): 23-43.

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McKnight, D.M., Feder, G.L. and Stiles, E.A., 1981b. Toxicity of volcanic-ash leachate to a blue-green alga. Results of a preliminary bioassay experiment. Environmental Science and Technology, 15(3): 362-364.

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PAMPHLETS

Download our pamphlets on preparing for ashfall and on the health hazards of ash. They are designed for mass distribution at the onset of new eruptions. They are now avaiable in English, Japanese, French Spanish, Portuguese, Swahili, Indonesian and Icelandic with Italian versions being available shortly. Please see our Pamphlets page for further infomation.

 

  

 

FACE MASK USE

IVHHN has an article under the Guidelines tab which used to be called 'Recommended Face Masks'. This has now been updated to 'Information on face masks' and is an interim page whilst the Health Interventions in Volcanic Eruptions project investigates which types of respiratory protection are effective in protecting the general population from volcanic ash inhalation. Please note that the translations in Spanish, Japanese and Portuguese have not yet been updated.

 

 

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