The following pages contain information relating to the health hazards of gases and aerosols typically emitted during volcanic activity. Each section outlines the properties of the emission; its impacts on health; international guidelines for concentrations; and examples of concentrations and effects in volcanic contexts, including casualties.
The entire Gas Guidelines database can be downloaded here as a PDF.
Before looking at the emissions data, we recommend that you read the general introduction to volcanic gases and aerosols first. A Glossary to some of the terms used in the explanations and guidelines is also provided.
For information on a particular emission follow the link below:
- Sulphur Dioxide (SO2)
- Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S)
- Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
- Hydrogen Chloride (HCl)
- Hydrogen Fluoride (HF)
- Particulate Matter (PM) and Aerosol
In addition, we have translations for this material in Spanish and Japanese below. You can still use the translation tool on the right hand side to automatically translate the English articles into any of the available languages.